Thursday, November 5, 2015

SATVIK, RAJSIK & TAMSIK GUN (Basic Tributes of Life) सात्विक, राजसिक एवं तामसिक गुण

SATVIK, RAJSIK & TAMSIK GUN (Basic Tributes of Life)
 सात्विक, राजसिक एवं तामसिक गुण 
CONCEPTS & EXTRACTS IN HINDUISM By :: Pt. Santosh Kumar Bhardwaj
Gun stands for attributes-characteristics-qualities. These attributes serve as a powerful indicator and formulator of the physical principles of the earth. They provide powerful insight into one's spiritual growth, worldly manifestations and the formation of matter from the subatomic level into more dense levels of matters manifestation and provide a powerful tool to accelerate personal and planetary transformation.
Serious practitioner of spirituality develop clear and exhaustive understanding of the Satvik Guns (virtues, righteousness, piousness, honesty, truth, valor) and their application to all fields-walks of life. He consciously apply this knowledge to all his actions and interactions in daily life. This will reinforce the appropriate Guns within one’s spiritual life. 
On mystical level Guns (-गुण)  represents the dualistic nature of the Almighty either as the Nirgun (-निर्गुण) or  Sagun (-सगुण)  or both.
At a spiritual level, the Universe is made up of the three subtle basic components (-Trigun) namely Satv, Raj and Tam. 
SATV (-सत्व) :: It is the balance, harmony, peace and similar qualities. One has no expectation of recognition or reward or any ulterior motive and believes in purity-piousity-piousness, honesty-truth, virtuousness, righteousness and welfare-service of society. His goal is Moksh, Ultimate bliss & the Almighty. The subtle basic Satv component is the most subtle or intangible of the three subtle basic components. It is the component nearest to divinity. Hence, its predominance in a person is characterised by happiness, contentment, virtues like patience, perseverance, ability to forgive, spiritual yearning etc. These components are subtle because they are intangible, not physical in nature and they cannot be measured-quantaized and can only be perceived by the subtle sense organs or the sixth sense.
(1). BRAHM (-ब्रह्म, traits of Brahma Ji) :: (i). Purity, Love for truth, self controlled, (ii). Power of discrimination, spiritual and material knowledge, (iii). Power of talk, answering and memory, (iv). Freedom from passion, anger, greed, ego ignorance, jealousy, dejection and intolerance, (v). Favourable disposition equally.
(2). ARSH (-ऋषि, मुनि, सिद्ध,  traits of ascetics, Rishi) :: (i). Devotion to sacred rituals, study, vows, celibacy, (ii). Hospitable disposition, (iii). Freedom from pride, ego, attachment, hatred, ignorance, greed and anger, (iv). Intellectual excellence and eloquence, (v). Power of understanding and retention.
(3). YAM (-यम, the deity-demigod of religion, Dharm & death) :: (i). Observance of actions (being here in the moment), (ii). Initiation of actions in time (ability to time actions for the proper moment), (iii). Non-viability, (iv). Readiness for initiating action, (v). Memory, (vi). Freedom from attachment, envy, hatred and ignorance.
(4). AENDR (-ऐन्द्र, the king of heaven, controls sensuality, passions, comforts) :: (i). Authoritative speech, (ii). Performance of sacred rituals, (iii). Bravery, strength and splendor, (iv). Freedom from mean acts, (v).Farsightedness, (vi). Devotion to virtuous acts, earning of wealth and proper satisfaction of desires.
(5). VARUN (-वरुण, the demigod of water) :: (i). Bravery, patience, purity and dislike for impurity, (ii). Observance of religious rites, (iii). Fondness for aquatic sports, (iv). Aversion for mean acts, (v). Exhibition of anger and pleasure in proper place.
(6). KUBER (-कुबेर, treasurer of divine wealth) :: (i). Possession of station, honor, luxuries and attendants, (ii). Constant liking for virtuous acts, wealth and satisfaction of desires, (iii). Purity, (iv). Liking for pleasures of recreation.
(7).  GANDARBH (-गन्दर्भ, divine musicians and dancers) ::  (i). Fondness for dancing, singing, music and praise, (ii). Expert in poetry and stories, (iii). Constant fondness for scents, garlands, association of women and passion.
RAJAS (-राजस) :: This represents activity and movement. It is dynamic. Rajsic people that are stimulated, active, and don’t know how to slow down. This can eventually become unbalancing to this group of people unless it is tempered with relaxing meditation. One lives more for personal gain, achievement and authority-might and believes in action associated with passion.The subtle basic Raj component provides fuel to the other two, i.e., brings about the action. So, depending on whether a person is predominantly Satvik or Tamsik the subtle basic Rajsik component will bring about actions pertaining to Satv or Tam.
(1).  ASUR (-असुर, Titan like) :: (i). Bravery, cruelty, envy, movement in disguise, terrifying appearance, ruthlessness, (ii). Indulgence in self-praise.
(2). RAKSHAS (-राक्षस, traits of demon) :: (i). Intolerance, constant anger, violence at weak points, cruelty, gluttonous habits and fondness for non-vegetarian food, (ii). Excessive sleep and indolence, (iii). Envious disposition.
(3). PAESHACH-DEMONIC (-पैशाच, traits of diabolical) :: (i). Gluttonous habits, (ii). Fondness for women, (iii). Liking for staying with women, (iv). Cowardice and terrifying disposition, (v). Abnormal diet.
(4). SARP (-सर्प,  traits snake) :: (i). Bravery when in wrathful disposition, cowardice when not in wrathful disposition, (ii). Sharp reaction, desire for revenge, anger, furious disposition , enmity, (iii). Excessive indolence, (iv). Walking, taking food and resorting to other regiments with a fearful disposition.
(5). PRET-GHOST (-प्रेत, traits of Pret, micro body obtained after death) :: (i). Excessive desire for food (ii). Excessively painful disposition, (iii). Enviousness, (iv). Actions without discrimination, (v). Excessive greediness and inaction.
(6). SHKUN BIRD (-शकुन, traits of Shakun a bird) :: (i). Attachment with passion, excessive food and regiment, unsteadiness, ruthlessness and unacquisitiveness.
TAMAS (-तामस) :: It stands for darkness, illusion, ignorance,  quiescence, passivity, pessimism, rest, laziness, inertia, non-moving, lethargy, laziness, criminal tendencies and doubt. One patronizes ignorance, inertia and darkness-demonic forces  & has no problem about stepping on other’s toes to get ahead or harming society. The subtle basic Tam component is the basest of the three. Its predominance in a person is reflected by laziness, greed, attachment to worldly matters etc.
(1). ANIMAL (-पाश्व, traits of an animal) :: (i). Forbidding disposition, (ii). Lack of intelligence (intelligence for right action). (iii). Hateful conduct, (iv). Food habit.
(2). FISH PIECES (-मत्स्य, traits of fish) :: (i). Cowardice, lack of intelligence, greediness for food, unsteadiness, constant passionate and wrathful disposition, (ii). Fondness for constant movement, desire for water.
(3). VEGETATION  (-वनस्पत्य, traits of vegetables) :: (i). Indulgence in food, deficiency of all intellectual faculties.
These Guns are further divided into twenty-four ::  (i). Shape, size or color (-आकृति, रूप, आकार), (ii). Taste (-रस, स्वाद), (iii ). Odor (-गंध, smell), (iv). Tangibility (-स्पर्श, touch), (v). Number (-सांख्य, quantum), (vi). Dimension (-दिशा, space), (vii). Severalty (-पृथकता, distinct, separate), (viii). Conjunction (-संयोग, chance), (ix). Dis junction (-विभाग), (xi). Remoteness (-एकांत, दूरस्थ, isolated), (xii). Proximity (-निकटता, सामीप्य), (xiii). Weight (-गुरुत्व), (xiv). Fluidity (-द्रव्यता), (xv). Viscidity (-चुपकना, adhesive quality, stick,  having a glutinous consistency), (xvi). Sound (-शब्द), (xvii). Knowledge (-ज्ञान, बुद्धि), (xviii). Pleasure (-सुख), (xix). Pain (-दुःख), (xx). Desire (-इच्छा), (xxi). Aversion (-द्वेष), (xxii). Effort (-प्रयत्न), (xxiii). Merit (-धर्म), (xxiv). Virtues (-संस्कार).

सत्वगुण, रजोगुण और तमोगुण 
सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसम्भवाः।निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम्‌॥14-5॥
हे महाबाहो ! सत्व, रज और तम - ऐसे नामों वाले ये तीन गुण हैं। यहाँ रूप, रस, गंध, स्पर्श और शब्द आदि की भाँति किसी द्रव्य के आश्रित गुणों का ग्रहण नहीं है। जैसे उपरोक्त रूपादि गुण द्रव्य के अधीन होते हैं वैसे ही सत्वादि गुण सदा क्षेत्रज्ञ के अधीन हुए ही अविद्यात्मक होने के कारण मानो क्षेत्रज्ञ को बाँध लेते हैं। उस क्षेत्रज्ञ को आश्रय बना कर ही ये गुण अपना स्वरुप प्रकट करने में समर्थ होते हैं, अतः "बाँधते हैं" ऐसा कहा जाता है।
तत्र सत्त्वं निर्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम्‌।सुखसङ्‍गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्‍गेन चानघ॥14-6॥
हे निष्पाप ! सत्वगुण स्फटिक - मणि की भाँति निर्मल होने के कारण, प्रकाशशील और उपद्रव रहित है तो भी वह बाँधता है। कैसे बाँधता है ? सुख की आसक्ति से। वास्तव में विषय रूप सुख का विषयी आत्मा के साथ "मैं सुखी हूँ" इस प्रकार सम्बन्ध जोड़ देना यह आत्मा को मिथ्या ही सुख में नियुक्त कर देना है। यही अविद्या है। इसी प्रकार यह सत्वगुण उसे ज्ञान के संग से भी बाँधता है। सुख की भाँति ही ज्ञान आदि के संग को भी बंधन करने वाला समझना चाहिए।
रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्‍गसमुद्भवम्‌।तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्मसङ्‍गेन देहिनम्‌॥14-7॥
अप्राप्त वास्तु की अभिलाषा का नाम "तृष्णा" है और प्राप्त विषयों में मन की प्रीति रूप स्नेह का नाम "आसक्ति" है। इस तृष्णा और आसक्ति की उत्पत्ति के कारण रूप रजोगुण को रागात्मक जान। वह रजोगुण, इस शरीरधारी क्षेत्रज्ञ को कर्मासक्ति से बांधता है। दृष्ट और अदृष्ट फल देने वाले जो कर्म हैं उनमें आसक्ति - तत्परता का नाम कर्मासक्ति है, उसके द्वारा बाँधता है।
तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्वदेहिनाम्‌।प्रमादालस्यनिद्राभिस्तन्निबध्नाति भारत॥14-8॥
और समस्त देहधारियों को मोहित करने वाले तमोगुण को, यानी जीवों के अंतःकरण में मोह - अविवेक उत्पन्न करने वाले तम नामक तीसरे गुण को तू अज्ञान से उत्पन्न हुआ जान। हे भारत ! वह तमोगुण, जीवों को प्रमाद, आलस्य और निद्रा के द्वारा बाँधा करता है।
सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रजः कर्मणि भारत।ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे सञ्जयत्युत॥14-9॥
हे भारत ! सत्वगुण सुख में नियुक्त करता है और रजोगुण कर्मों में नियुक्त करता है तथा तमोगुण, रजोगुण से उत्पन्न हुए विवेक - ज्ञान को अपने आवरणात्मक स्वभाव से आच्छादित करके फिर प्रमाद में नियुक्त किया करता है। प्राप्त कर्तव्य को न करने का नाम प्रमाद है।


Each and every individual born as a human being possesses Satvik, Rajsik and Tamsik characters in varied proportions, which moves them to heavens, earth and hells respectively. Excess of Satvik-divine-austere-pious-pure-righteous-virtuous characters paves the way to higher abodes-heavens. One with excess of Rajsik characters will be reborn as a human being. Those with excessive Tamsik characters book their berth in the hells-lower specie-life forms by virtue of the sins they have been accumulating all over their life.

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