Wednesday, February 27, 2013

HINDUISM (हिन्दुत्व)

CONCEPTS & EXTRACTS IN HINDUISM By:: Pt. Santosh Kumar Bhardwaj
PhotoThis write up is piece of continued research  work conducted by the author for a number of years. Each and every thing quoted here is authentic. One may contribute to it, quoting source and authenticity.
A number of words used here are from Sanskrit, for which no English equivalents are available. Sanskrit is the oldest language, which emerged with the universe, is the mother of all languages and most scientific language of the world. It's the only language in the world, which is perfect and can be understood by computer in to-to.
The purpose of writing this is to help those who are engaged in research pertaining to evolution of live on our planet and else where in the universe-galaxies.The scientist has not been able to peep beyond this earth, in the absence of useful links and proper measuring tools/units. This write up will provide him with an insight into the various living abodes, much beyond his imagination, which existed and continue to exist.
Atharv Ved, Varah Mihir’s Panch Siddhantika, Brahm Gupt, Brahmn Sphut Siddhant, Sury Siddhant, and astronomer Lal Achary’s writings describes-mentions, the instruments used for measuring time very-very accurately-precisely, correct to 1000th fraction of a second. These devices were different from of Sundials, water clocks, hourglasses using sand, incense sticks or candles etc.
Sundial utilizes the change in the length of the shadows of some vertical-erect rod. Jantr Mantr-New Delhi and Jaipur has such clocks.
Water clock was a device used in ancient India to measure small time intervals required for various events. Small tapered-conical utensils with narrow hole at the bottom were generally used. Leela Wati's (-propounder of Beej Ganit-Algebra) father -a great astrologer used such technique to decide, whether she  should marry or not.
During medieval period such vessels were used as hourglass by filling them with fine sand. Flow of sand through the hole was used to measure the time. Burning time of certain incense sticks or candles was also used to measure time, especially in temples in ancient India.
Life will perpetuate in our Universe for 108 divine years (-age of Brahma Ji), when Shri Hari will close his eyes. Life on Earth, Swarg and Patal perpetuates till one kalp-Brahma's one day.
While, learning Ved, Puran, Upnishad, Brahman, Maha Bharat, Ramayan etc., one comes across the various units of time invariably, which have been used in different Kalps, for the same quantity. In Astrology and Scientific calculations, these units and terms are of immense use and help. It can be established easily, that the units of time, used all over the world currently, have their roots, in the ancient Sanatan Dharm.
Truti (- Vaidh, Love and Vipal represent the same quantity), is the fundamental unit of time, described in Puran’s. It is the time taken by the Sun to cross three tri molecules (-like Ozone), which can be seen flying in the Sun light, coming through the crevices, in a house through windows.
Nimesh is the time taken by a healthy person, to blink eyes or to pronounce a Matra (- Sanskrit/Hindi alphabet called swer/quantity).
1 Truti = 2 Nimesh = 24 per Second = 1/10 Asu.
10 Truti = 10 Vipal = 1 Asu = 4 Seconds .
1 Pal = 6 Asu/Pran = 24 Seconds = 60 Vipal.
2 ½ Pal = 1 Minute = 60 Seconds =15 Asu.
60 Pal = 1 Ghunti = 24 Minutes = 460 Asu.
2 ½ Ghunti = 1 Ghunta (-hour) = 60 Minutes = 900 Asu,
60 Ghunti = 24 Ghunta = 1 Ahoratr (- Day-Night).
2 ½ Vipal = 1 Second = 60 Prati Seconds = 32, 40,000 Atoms.
1 Kala = 60 Vikala,
1 Ansh (-Degree/part/ segment) = 60 Kala,
1 Rashi = 30 Ansh. 1 Bhagan (-One solar year) = 12 Rashi (-Astrological signs).
1 Chhan = 3 Nimesh, 1 Chan = 30 Kala, 1 Kastha = 5 Chan, 1 Kastha =15 Nimesh.
1 Kala = 30 Kastha, 1 Laghu = 15 Kastha,1 Nadika = 15 Laghu, 1 Nadik a (Dand) = 15 Kala,
1 Muhurt = 2 Nadika = 12 Chan = 30 Kala = 30 Kastha = 30 Laghu,
1 Sangav -(Morning/Day Break) = 3 Muhurt,
1 Madhyan (-Mid Day) =3 Muhurt, 1 Aprahn (-After noon) = 3 Muhurt, 1 Sayahn (-Evening, Sandhya) = 3 Muhurt,
1 Divsansh (-End of the day) = 3 Muhurt,
1 Day = 15 Muhurt,1 (Day- Night) = 30 Muhurt.
1 Pitr Din (-Day) = 30 Bhartiy Din (-Length of day in India).
1 Brahm Din = 72, 00,000 Bhartiy Din (- Length of the day in India), 1 month=27 days.
1 Day=4 Prehr = 1 Night.
1 Week=7 days 1 Paksh (Fortnight) = 15 (Day- Night).
1 Month = 2 Paksh (- Fortnight) = 30 (Day- Night).
1 Ritu (Season) = 2 Months.
1 Year = 12 Months = 52 weeks = 6 Seasons = 2 Ayan.
Paksh (Shukl Paksh & Krishan Paksh) is a period of 13/14/ 15/16 days (-which depend upon Lunar month having 27 to 31 days, sometimes full moon night continues for 2 to 3 days i.e., overlapping of 2 to 3 dates).
Ayan is the time spent by the Sun in one Hemisphere= 6 months. 
Uttrayan (-Divine Day): Movement of the Sun towards North (-Northern hemisphere); from Maker Rashi to Mithun Rashi, marks the beginning of the day Sun rise of deities-demigods and Sun set of demons day. Its a period of 6 months-equivalent to the day of demigods-deities. Every year on 14th January(-sometimes date change due to correction in solar time) it occurs as a festival called Makar Sankranti-Pongal-Bihu-Lohri in India.
Dakshinayan (-Divine Night-Aho Ratr): Movement of the Sun towards South (-Southern hemisphere); from Kark Rashi to Dhnu Rashi, Sun set of demigods-deities and Sun rise of demons, on the eve of Makar Sankranti. Its a period of 6 months-equivalent to the day of demons.
1 Ayan = 3 Ritu (Seasons).
1 Shravan Month = 30 Days of 24 Hours duration. 1 Sor (-Solar) Month = 30 Days and 10 Hours.
1 Nakshtr (-Constellations) Month = 29 Days and 22 Hours.
1 Chandr (-Lunar) Month = 29 Days and 12 Hours.
Equinox: A day measuring 24 hours is called Shravan or Vishub.
1 Shravan Year = 360 Shravan Days.
1 Chandr(Lunar) year = 354 Shravan Days= 359 Shravan Days.
1 Som-Varsh (Year) = 1000 Shrawan Days.
1 Asw Madh Varsh = 1461 Shravan Days.
1 Sudhar Varsh = 1826 Shravan Days.
1 Samvatser = 360 Days.
1 Solar Year = 365.2432 Shravan Days=1 Year on earth: Solar Scale= 365 days, Shravan Scale= 360 Days, Lunar Scale=354 Days, Constellation Scale = 335 Days.
Paternal Ancestors Night = Shukla Paksh, Paternal Ancestors Day =Krishan Paksh, Paternal Ancestors (Day + Night) = 1 Month.
Brahma Ji created life during the day (1 Kalp) which is abolished during the night (1 Kalp) by the Mahesh. Entire creations (life forms/species) of Brahma Ji, all deities, all Praja Patis and Mahrishis remain during the day and are created again after the night. Brahma’s Aho Ratr is not associated with Sun rise and Sun set. It’s a never ending cycle.
Bhagwati's one Nimesh (-blink of eye)= 2 Prardh. 
Bhagwan Shanker’s Age = 8 Prardh. 
Bhagwan Vishnu’s Age = 4 Prardh.
Bhagwan Brahma’s Age =2 Prardh = Divine/Deity’s 108 years . Second half/Prardh of Brahma’s life is running currently. 
Brahma’s one day (Kalp) = 1 Divine Night.
1 Kalp = 1000 Chatur Yug = 4, 32, 00, 00,000 years. 
1 Year of Brahma=1000 Kalp.
1 Yug of Brahma= 8000 Years of Brahma
1 Day of Vishnu = 1000 Yug of Brahma
1 Day of Sada Shiv (-Kalatma/Maha Kal)=9000 Days of Vishnu. 
Brahma's 1 Day Night=28 Indr's.
1 Indr's age=1 Manvantr= Divine 71 Yug. 
1 Divine Maha Yug = 1000 Divine Chatur Yug = 14 Manu’s Period.
1 Manu’s Period = Slightly more than 71 6/14 Manvanters.
1 Manvanter = 30, 67, 20,000 Solar years = 8, 52,000 Divine years.
1 Divine/Deity’s Aho Ratr (Day-Night) = 1 Solar Year on earth (-Human’s).
1 Divine month = 30 Aho Ratr= 3 Solar (Human’s) years. 100 Human years = Divine 3 months and 10 days.
1 Divine year = 12 Divine months= 360 solar years on earth.
1 Divine Yug=12,000 Divine years. 
1 Sapt Rishi’s Year = 3030 Solar years.
1 Dhruv (-Pole star) Year = 90,000 years. 100 Divine Years = 36,000 Solar -(Human/on earth) Years.

1 Chatur Yug = Saty Yug + Treta Yug + Dwaper Yug + Kal Yug.
SATY YUG (-Cosmic Era): Saty Yug+Sandhyance+Sandhya =4,000 years+400 years+400 years=4,800 Divine years=17,28,000   Solar Years,
TRETA YUG (-Cosmic Era): Treta Yug+Sandhyance+Sandhya=3,000 years+300 years+300 years=3,600 Divine years=12,96,000  Solar Years,
DWAPER YUG (-Cosmic Era): Dwaper Yug+Sandhyance+Sandhya=2,000 years+200 years+200 years=2,400 Divine years=8,64,000  Solar Years,
KAL YUG (-Cosmic Era): Kal Yug+Sandhyance+Sandhya=1,000 years+100 years+100 years=1,200  Divine years=4,32,000  Solar Years.
Sandhya is the period between the day and night; Sandhyance is a fraction of it.Time Period of Yug including Sandhya and Sandhyance: Solar Years on Earth.

Initially, there is no rain for 100 years followed by drought and inauspicious signs, disturbances all over the earth. Sun rays tend to destroy all creatures followed by the fire emanating in the ocean. Poisonous flames from the 1000 mouths-hoods of Bhagwan Anant-Shesh Nag, engulf the earth. 3rd eye of Bhagwan Mahesh opens. Entire earth turns into big heap of ash looks like the shell of tortoise. It starts raining with droplets as thick as elephants trunk  and all the 7 heavens and the 7 Patal-Sutal Lok are covered with water having the earth in between.Their identity is lost till Bhagwan Vishnu-Narayan do not emerge out of the golden shell floating over the surface of water. Re emergence of Brahma from the Lotus navel of The Lord of Lords Vishnu and Mahesh from the forehead of Brahma Ji, sees the process of evolution again. 
(1)  Nity Pralay (-नित्य प्रलय): Nity Pralay is the sleep (- an extension of Death).
(2) Naimittik Pralay (-नैमित्तिक प्रलय): End of a single day of Brahma Ji. The three abodes (Bhu: भू: , Bhuv: भुव: and Suv:  स्व:) disintegrate and assimilate in the Almighty.
(3) Maha Pralay (-महा प्रलय): Ultimate deluge at the end of the age of one Brahma, which consists of 100 Brahmic Years (365 Times 1,000 Chatur Yug).
(4)  Aatyantik Pralay (-आत्यान्तिक प्रलय): The final deliverance or the attainment of Salvation by a creature-living being-entity. One will be free from the cycle of life (-Life जीवन) and death (-Death मृत्यु ), birth rebirth. He is free from the impact of Karm-deeds and the Sansar (-universe, world संसार).(This is considered to be variable time span depending upon the different Manvantr, Manu, Yog or the Prapati.)

All Brahmand’s (Universes are created in I Nimesh and are Destroyed in I Nimesh of Brahma Ji).
HUMAN’S AGE: SAT YUG= 400 years, TRETA YUG=300 Years, DWAPER YUG=200 Years, KAL YUG=100 YEARS. PARAM AYU =105 Years in Kal Yug.
Different Calendars essential to understand our universe as a single unit: Samvatser, Perivatser, Indrvatser, Anuvatser, Vatser.
Names of Days in Brahma’s month.
SHUKL PAKSH : 1. Shwat Varah Kalp, 2. Neel Lohit Kalp, 3. Vam Dev Kalp, 4. Gathanter Kalp, 5. Rorav Kalp, 6. Pran Kalp, 7. Vraht Kalp, 8. Kandarp Kalp, 9. Saty Kalp, 10. Ishan Kalp, 11. Dhyan Kalp, 12. Saraswat Kalp, 13. Udan Kalp, 14. Garud Kalp, 15. Kaurm Kalp;
KRISHN PAKSH: 16. Narsingh Kalp, 17. Samadhi Kalp, 18. Agnay Kalp, 19. Vishnuj Kalp, 20. Sour Kalp 21. Som Kalp, 22. Bhawan Kalp, 23. Supt Mali Kalp, 24. Vaikunth Kalp, 25. Achiki Kalp, 26. Valmiki Kalp,27. Vairaj Kalp, 28. Gauri Kalp, 29. Maheshwar Kalp, 30. Pitr Kalp.
Fourteen Manu’s expire in one day (-Kalp) of Brahma Ji.
At present 5011th year of Kal Yug, of the Shwat Varah Kalp is running.
Life span of one Manu is 71 6/14 Chatur Yug or Maha Yug measuring 30,67,20,000 solar years.

Names of the Manu’s: 1. Swayambhu Manu, 2. Swarochit Manu, 3. Uttam Manu, 4. Tamas Manu, 5. Raiwat Manu, 6. Chakshush Manu, 7. Vaiwasvat Manu, 8. Sawarni Manu, 9. Daksh Sawarni Manu, 10. Brahm Sawarni Manu, 11. Dharm Sawarni Manu, 12. Rudr Sawarni Manu, 13. Rauty-Dev Sawarni Manu, 14. Indr Sawarni-Mautyak.
(1). Swayambhu: One who appears by himself-the self-born (-beginning of evolution).
(2). Swarochit: Incarnation of Aura-brightness, glow.
(3). Uttam: Incarnation of excellence.
(4). Tamas: Incarnation of Tam (-darkness).
(5). Raiwat: Incarnation of Kuber.
(6). Chakshush: Son of the vision.
(7). Vaiwasvat: Vaiwasvat is the son of Bhagwan Sury Narayan. This is the current phase.
(8). Ark Sawarni (-Sawarnika): A Manifestation of Bhagwan Sury Narayan.
(9). Daksh Sawarni: Incarnation of Daksh Prajapati.
(10). Brahm Sawarni: Incarnation Of Brahma Ji.
(11). Dharm Sawarni: Incarnation of Dharm Raj (-Yam Raj).
(12). Rudr Sawarni: Incarnation of Bhagwan Shiv.
(13). Dev Sawarni: Incarnation of the Luster.
(14). Indr Sawarni: Incarnation of Indr.
71 6/14 cycles of Chatur Yug is called a Manvantar. At the end of each Manvantar , there comes a partial devastation period, which is equivalent to the duration of Krat-Sat Yug . After the elapse of every Manvantar period, the universe is partially dissolved to be recreated.

A cosmic days consists of 14 Manvantar of 30,67,20,000 solar years. A Manvantar is further sub divided into 14 MANU. Currently the 7th Manvantar with 7th Manu is running

A Manvantar is one of the 14 sub-units of a cosmic creation and lasts for 710 days or 306 720 000 solar years.  A Manvantar is divided into a total of 71 Maha Yug. Currently, we live the 28th Maha Yug the 7th Manvantar. The Maha Yug close to each other seamlessly, without having a period of twilight to be separated.
1 MANVANTAR71 6/14 cycles of CHATUR YUG
MAHA KALP-THE LIFE SPAN OF BRAHMA JI: Brahma (-the creator) lives for 100 years of 360 such days and at the end, he is said to dissolve, along with his entire Creation, into the Par Matma-Par Brahm Parmeshwar the Almighty (-Eternal Soul). The scriptures put Brahma's age at 100 years in his divine time scale.
Brahma's life span is equal to 311,040,000,000,000 human years. This period in named as Maha Kalp. A universe lasts only for one Maha kalp. At the juncture the universe dissolves completely along with the creator Brahm. There after a new universe will be created with a next Brahma. This cycle goes on endlessly. This process of creation and dissolution of the universe goes on endlessly through repetitive cycles of creation and destruction. During the annihilation of the universe, energy is conserved, to manifest again in the next creation.

1 Maha Kalp
100 years of Brahma (311,040,000,000,000 SOLAR YEARS
Manu's live a long and happy life for 100 divine years. India has been the hub of the Saints/Rishi/Muni's who have been practicing Yog and other methods for surviving a long period of time. Here are some tried and trusted means for Longevity.

Life span in Sat/Kret Yug: 400 years, Treta: 300 years, Dwaper: 200 Years, Kal Yug: 100 years.
There is a long list of people with life span of 100 to millions of years like Pralad, Bahu Bali, Markanday, Lomash, Hanuman, Sugreev, Vibhishan, Ved Vyas, Krapacharya, Kapil, Ashawasthama.


The Hindu view of time can be broadly referred to as the Vedic-Divine Time System. KAL (-Time) is regarded as multi-dimensional. Yam Raj-Dharm Raj is the son of Bhagwan Sury an incarnation of Narayan-Bhagwan Vishnu. He is Kal. Bhagwan Shiv is Maha Kal. सूर्य के पुत्र यमराज-धर्मराज काल कहे जाते हैं और भगवान शिव को महाकाल कहा जाता है।पृथ्वी सहित समस्त लोकों में सभी कार्य-कलाप सूर्य से ही निर्धारित किये जाते हैं। सूर्य पुत्र काल समस्त चराचर, जन्म-मरण और समय को निर्धारित करते हैं। 

* One observes that Indian heritage-scriptures-epics describes-discuss-elaborate this concept of time, in great detail, at great length. It includes Astrology which is a perfect science detailing the various Galaxies, solar systems, stars, constellations, planets, tail stars, nebulae, satellites etc., their movements, orbits, mutual interaction and impact-effect at great length. In fact this is Ultimate.

CYCLIC NATURE OF TIME:  Movement of Sun planets, solar system, Heavens, Petals and all celestial bodies-abodes is cyclical in nature. Entire universe undergoes more than 5 different types of motions simultaneously, at the same moment.

A seed grows into a sapling, a plant and ultimately into a tree. The tree produces seeds for the next generation before its death. Similarly, the process of evolution continues from one generation to another, undergoing mutations-both forward and back ward), changes, modification simultaneously, in its genetic map.

* Its common knowledge that water from the ocean evaporates, turns into clouds, rains, changes into hails-snow-water vapors-hydrogen & oxygen, rivers, streams, channels, ponds, lakes and ultimately return back to the ocean, after nurturing the living world.

* The rosary has 108 beads. One returns to the first bead, after counting all the 108 beads.

Vedic-Divine astronomy give a very detailed division of time up to the lowest sub division level of Pran (-breath, respiration)-a time lapse of four seconds. The lowest sub divisions Pran is the same part of the day as the minute is of the circle, so that a respiration of time is equivalent to a minute of apparent revolution of the heavenly bodies above the earth.
The astronomical division of sidereal time are:

1 Truti त्रुटि
1/100 Tatpar  तत्पर
29.6296 microseconds
1 Tatpar  तत्पर
1/30 Nimesh निमेष
2.96296 milliseconds
1 Nimesh निमेष
1/45 Pran प्राण
88.889 milliseconds
45 Nimesh निमेष
1 Pran प्राण
4 Seconds
6 Pran प्राण
1 Vinadi विनाड़ी
24 Seconds
60 Vinadi विनाड़ी
1 Nadi नाड़ी
24 Minutes
60 Nadi नाड़ी
1 Ahoratr अहो रात्र
1,440 Minutes.

The day constitutes of 24 hours.
1 Nadi or Dand = 24 minutes,
1 Vinadi विनाड़ी = 24 seconds,
1 Asu आसु or Pran प्राण = 4 seconds,
1 Nimesh निमेष= 88.889 milliseconds,
1 Tatpar तत्पर = 2.96296 milliseconds,
1 Truti त्रुटि = 29.6296 microseconds or 33,750th part of second.
* One observes remarkable perfection added with precision, still a lot of work is left to be done to correlate various systems prevailing in ancient India, pertaining to measurement of time.
* Pran is the basic unit of time of an average healthy man who needs to complete one respiration-breath or to pronounce ten long syllables guravakshr (-गुरावक्षर).
* 60 Ghatika or Nadi make one day and night.
* Purans provide another elaborate division of time (-Kal काल, समय), where the fundamental unit is Nimesh (-twinkling-blinking of an eye) (-Sury Siddhant).
* Truti is referred to as a quarter of the time of falling of an eye lid-(-twinkling-blinking of an eye).

100 Truti (-atoms)
 1 Tatpar (speck)
30 Tatpar (-specks)
 1 Nimesh (-blinking of an eye, twinkling)
18 Nimesh (-blinking of eye, twinkling’s)
1 Kashtha (-bit)
30 Kashtha (-bits)
 1 Kala (~minute)
30 Kala (-minutes)
1 Ghatika (~half hour)
2 Ghatika (-half hour)
1 Kshan क्षण/Muhurt मुहूर्त (~hour)
30 Kshan क्षण Muhurt मुहूर्त  (-hour)
1 Ahoratr अहोरात्र (~day).

1 Muhurt = 48 minutes,
1 Ghati = 24 minutes,
1 kala = 48 seconds,
1 Kashtha = 1.6 seconds,
1 Nimesh = 88.889 milliseconds.
* The earth is performing-observing 5 different kinds of motions as a component of the Galaxy, Solar system as a whole, along with the Sun, revolution round the Sun and rotation around its own axis. The time taken to complete one rotation is 24 hours with the speed of nearly 1660 Km per hour. Half of it remains in front of the Sun and is illuminated while the portion is on the opposite side remains dark. The illuminated segment observes the day while the dark part has the night. 
* The illuminated half portion is called-referred to as ahh अहह (-day) and the dark half is called the Ratri रात्रि (night). 
* 60 Ghatika or Nadi make one day and night.
*SURY SIDDHANT: It has two dimensions viz., Virtual and Practical. Time is Murt (-मूर्त embodied) and Amurt (-अमूर्त, virtual). It unites procession recession and stasis. The Sury Siddhant delineates that what begins with pran (-respiration, breath) is real; that which begins with Truti (-त्रुटि-defect) is unreal. Divine-Vedic astronomical text divides the units of time into two categories: (1) Murt Kla (-मूर्त कला) and (2) Amurt Kla (-अमूर्त कला). The units of the former kind (-Murt Kla मूर्त कला) are manifested by the nature while, the later (-Amurt Kla अमूर्त कला) are man's creation. Thus, Ahoratr, Pran or Asu, Nimesh constitutes (Murt Kla -मूर्त कला), while the remaining ones constitute Amurt Kla (-अमूर्त कला).
HOUR (-घंटा): [अ + होरा + रात्र] Ahoratr is composed of [aa + hora + ratr]. Hora is another measuring fundamental unit of time utilized in Astrological calculations. Varah Mihir-the great Indian mathematician, used this system widely in his works. Its further subdivides into 24 hours.
NOMENCLATURE OF WEEK DAYS: 60 Ghati or Dand (-दण्ड) make one day and night or Ahoratr. Indian astronomers dedicated each Ghati of the day to a planet as its lord and derived the name of the day as per the lord of the first Ghati of the day.

Sury Sun सूर्य 
Sunday रविवार 
Som-Moon-Luna चन्द्र 
Monday सोमवार 
Mangal-Bhom-Mars मंगल 
Tuesday मंगलवार 
Buddh-Mercury बुद्ध 
Wednesday बुद्धवार 
Guru-Vrahaspati वृहस्पति 
Thursday वृहस्पतिवार 
Shukr-Venus शुक्र 
Friday शुक्रवार 
Shani-Saturn शनि 
Saturday शनिवार 
Rahu-Ketu राहु केतु 
Eclipse ग्रहण 

The Solar system has Sun at the focus and the planets revolve round it in elliptical orbits specific orbits in specific intervals of time keeping Sun at one of the two focus depending their distance from it. Life on earth is sustained by the Sun. It is the Lord of the first-initial Ghati, of the first day of the week Ravi Var-Sunday. The Lords of second and third Ghati of Ravi are Mars and Jupiter, respectively. Saturn is the Lord of the 60th Ghati and the moon or Som becomes the Lord of the first Ghati of the next day and is termed as Som Var or Monday (-Moon's Day). While counting 60 Ghatis along the circle one has to make 8 complete revolutions involving another 4 planets. Thus, beginning from a particular planet, the 5th place goes to Shani Var-Saturday. When one begins from Saturday he goes to Sunday, completing the cycle.
Yagy Valkay Sanhita Verse (-shlok श्लोक 1-295) gives-mentions the names of the planets exactly in the same order as that of the week days.
Samvatsar सम्वतसर:  It’s a Sanskrt term for year. There are 60 Samvatsar, each of which has a name. Once all 60 Samvatsar are over, the cycle starts over again. The sixty Samvatsar are divided into 3 groups of 20 Samvatsar each. The first 20 from Prabhav to Vyay are attributed to Brahma. The next 20 from Sarvajit to Parabhava are devoted to Bhagwan Vishnu & the last 20 are dedicated to Shiv. Kalo Gati Nivartti Sthiti: Samdadhati (-Sankhyana Aranyaka 7.20).
39. Vishvavasu
16. Chitrabhanu  
40. Parabhav
29. Manmath
30. Durmukh
31. Hemalambin
33. Vikarin
45. Virodhikrit
57. Rudhirodgarin
22. Sarvadharin
23. Virodhin
47. Pramadin
12. Bahudhany
36. Shubhakrit
There are 4 epochs or Yug, namely, KRAT-SAT YUG, TRETA YUG, DVAPAR YUG, and KAL YUG. These four Yug together constitute a CHATUR YUG-MAHA YUG. It constitutes of 4,320,000 Solar years on earth. Time period of these Yug has a ratio of (4:3:2:1).

17,28,000 years
12,96,000 years
8,64,000 years
4,32,000 years

,3,20,000 human years

These epochs-eras witness a gradual decline of Dharm, wisdom, enlightenment, knowledge, intellectual capability, life span and emotional and physical strength.
KART-SAT YUG क्रत युग 
त्रेता युग 
DVAPAR YUG द्वापर युग 
कल युग 
¾ of virtue and ¼ of   sin.
½ virtues and ½ sin.
¼ of virtues and ¾ of sin.
21 cubits
14 cubits
7 cubits
3.5 cubits


 (विक्रमी सम्वत्)

No parallel can be drawn, when one comes to analyse the prevailing calendars all over the world. The HINDU CALENDER is the ULTIMATE. It can be proved that all other calendars are either copies of it or are inspired by it.
PRESENT DATE WITH REFERENCE TO, THIS DAY OF BRAHMA JI: Time in itself is a manifestation of God. Creation-Evolution begins when Brahma Ji's day-KALP begins. God is beyond the limits-periphery of time. Time like all other measuring tools is relative. There is nothing like absolute. The past, the present and the future may coexist in him-the Almighty, simultaneously. Present Kal Yug began at midnight on a change of 17 at 18 February in the year 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar. Since the beginning of the Kalp-Brahma's Day, until the year 2014 AD passed: [{6 complete Manvantar (6 x 710)} + {7 Manvantar twilight before a Manvantar each (7 x 4) }+ {27 complete Maha Yug of the current 7th Manvantar (27 x 10)} + {(3 Elapsed Yug the current 28th Maha Yug: (4 + 3 + 2) x 4,32,000 years + 5116 solar years} in the current Kal Yug.
The epoch (-beginning of the first day of the zeroth year) of the current HINDU ERA-KAL YUG (-कलयुग) calendar (-both solar and luni-solar) is February 18, 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar or January 23, 3102 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Both the solar and luni-solar calendars started on this date. After that, each year is labeled by the number of years elapsed since the epoch.
Unique feature of the Hindu calendar is to count the years elapsed from the beginning of the Kalp-Brahma's. Other systems use the current ordinal number of the year as the year label. But just as a person's true age is measured by the number of years that have elapsed starting from the date of the person's birth, the Hindu calendar measures the number of years elapsed. As of May 18, 2014, 5115 years had elapsed in the Hindu calendar, so this is the 5115th Hindu calendar year since the onset of Kal Yug. Note that the luni-solar calendar year will usually start earlier than the solar calendar year.
CYCLIC TIME THE KAL CHAKR (-कालचक्र):  The process of creation is cyclical and never ending; it begins to end and ends to begin. The Cycle of Time is called Kal Chakr-wheel (-पहिया), in order to create divisions and movements of life and sustain the worlds in periodic time frames. God also uses time to create the illusions of life and death. It is time, which is accountable for old age, death and dying of his creations. When we overcome time, we become immortal. Death is not the end of the line, but a gateway to the next cycle, to birth. This is also true of the universe itself and akin to the cyclic patterns in the rhythms of nature. The mighty son of Bhagwan Sury Dharm Raj-Yam Raj is called Kal, while Bhagwan Shiv himself is called Maha Kal.
There are two commonly used calendars, in India. The first is the Shak which starts from 78 AD when the Shali Vahan Southern ruler defeated the Shak king of Malwa and the second one is called the Vikrami calendar (-विक्रमी सम्वत्) which begun in 57 BC. These calendars have merely being aligned with the Brahmi calendar-beginning of the Kalp-Brahma's day. It was the transition between the Nakshatr Aswini (-अश्वनी, आश्विन) to Revti (-रेवती) in 57 BC which corresponds to the transition between signs; Aries to Pisces. Chaitra in the Lunar month corresponds to the central full moon, occurring at or near the Chitra Nakshatr.  Similarly, when Poornima (-full Moon)occurs in or near Vaishakh Nakshatr, the lunar month is titled Vaishakh (-Mas-Mah).Similarly, for the Nakshatr , Jyeshtha-Jeth,  Purva Shadha-Asadh,  Shravan-Sawan-Shrawan, Bhadrpad-Bhadon, Ashwin (-Asouj), Kritika -Kartik,  Mrgshira, Pushya-Poush पौष ,  Magh and (Poorva/Uttra),  Phalguni -Phalgun(-फाल्गुन).
NAKSHATR (-नक्षत्र): The Zodiac according to Indian Astrology comprises of 360 degrees. There are 27 Nakshatr or Constellations in it. The angular measurement of each constellation is 13 degrees and 20 minutes. Each Nakshtr is further subdivide divided into 4 pad or charan (-section, segments,sectors). This is an applicable to astrological analysis for accurate predictions.Their names are: (1) Ashwani, (2) Bharni, (3) Kritika, (4) Rohini, (5) Mrgshira, (6) Adra, (7) Purnvasu, (8) Pushya, (9) Ashlesha, (10) Magh Poorva, (11) Uttra Phalguni, (12) Hasta, (13) Chitra, (14) Swati, (15) Phalguni, (16) Vishakha, (17) Anuradha, (18) Jyeshtha, (19) Moola, (20) Poorva Shadha, (21) Uttra Shadha, (22) Sharavan, (23) Dhanishta,  (24) Satbhijit, (25) Poorva Bhadrpad, (26) Uttra Bhadrapad & (27) Rewti.
* The lunar months are split into two Paksh (-पक्ष fortnights) as the period of 15 days. 
* The waxing Paksh is called Sukl Paksh (- शुक्ल पक्ष), bright half and the waning Paksh the Krashn, Paksh (-कृष्ण पक्ष) the dark half.
* The beginning of the month may be considered to be either from Amavshya (-अमावश्या) or (-पूर्णिमा) Purnima
* Amavshyant (-अमावश्यान्त): The month begins with new moon and ends at new moon.
* Purnimant (-पूर्णिमांत): The month begins with full moon and ends at full moon. This is the system followed in northern India. This is termed as Shuklant (-शुक्लान्त मास) Mas as well.( Varah Mihir (-वराह मिहिर) the renounced Mathematician followed and recommended this system.
EXTRA-ADHIK MONTH (- पुरुषोत्तम-अधिक अथवा मल मास लौंद का महीना): When the sun does not at all transit into any Zodiac-Rashi but simply keeps moving within a Rashi in a lunar month (i.e. before a new moon), the lunar month is named according to the first upcoming transit. It takes the epithet of adhik or extra. Let, a lunar month elapses without a solar transit and the next transit is into Aries Meṣh (-मेष), then this month without transit is labeled Adhik Chaitra Mas-Mah-Month. The next month is labeled according to its transit as usual and will gets the epithet nij (-निज own-original-Shuddh शुद्ध) contaminated. When Bhadr Pad-Bhadon repeats twice; initially the Sun stays remains within Singh Rashi resulting in an Adhik Mas Bhadr Pad.
Extra Month or the adhik (-extra) mas-lunar month repeats every 32.5 months. It is also known as Purushottm Mas (-पुरुषोत्तम मास). Thus a Hindu year constitutes of 356 days due to the  Lunar system of measurement, while the solar system of measurement has 365 or 366 days (-in leap year) which create difference of 9 to 10 days, which is offset every 3rd year. An Adhik ma never falls between Kartik to Magh.
Ksy Mas (-कस्य मास, Lost month): If the sun transits into two Rashis (-जब सूर्य दो राशियों से गुजरता है तो) within a lunar month, then the month will have to be labeled by both transits and will take the epithet Ksy or lost. This is considered to be lost, since, only one month is labeled by both transits. If the sun had transited into only one Rashi in a lunar month, as is usual, there would have been two separate months, labeled by the two transits in question.
When the sun transits through Mesh and Vṛṣhabh in a lunar month, it's called Chaitr-चैत्र Vaishakh वैशाख Ksy Mas. There will not be separate two separate months labeled Chaitr-चैत्र Vaishakh वैशाख.
A Ksy-Mas occurs very rarely. Known gaps between the occurrences of Ksy-Mas are 19 and 141 years. The last was in 1983. January 15 through February 12 was Pauṣ-Magh Ksy-mas. February 13 on wards it was (-Adhik) Phalgun.
Special Case: If there is no solar transit in one lunar month but there are two transits in the next lunar month,the first month will be labelled by the first transit of the second month and take the epithet Adhik and the next month will be labelled by both its transits as is usual for a Ksy mas-Mah (-माह). This is a very very rare occurrence. The last one was in 1315. October 8 to November 5 were Kartik Adhik-Mas-Mah and November 6 to December 5 were Kartik-Margshirsh (-मार्गशीर्ष) Ksy mas-Mah, while from December 6 on wards it was Paus (-पौस).
INAUSPICIOUS: Among the normal months, Adhik month and Ksy month, the one which comes earlier is considered auspicious. A festival which coincides with  the 10th tithi of the Asooj Ashwin  month (-दशहरा Vijay Dashmi) and there are two Asooj (-Ashwin आश्विन Asouj) months caused by the existence of an adhik Asooj Ashwin  the festival will not be observed in the first adhik Mas, and the festival will be observed only in the second nij month. However, if the second month is Asooj Ashwin Ksy then the festival will be observed in the first adhik month itself.
When two months are rolled into one in the case of a Ksy Month the festivals of both months will also be rolled into this Ksy month. Maha Shiv Ratri which was to be observed on the fourteenth tithi of Magh Krashn Paksh in 1983 was observed on the corresponding tithi of Paus Magh Ksy Krashn Paksh, since Paus and Magh rolled into one during that year. When two months are rolled into one in the case of a Ksy month the festivals of both months will also be rolled into the Ksy month.
Vikrmi Samvat or Desi year, is a solar year which starts on the 13th of March, or the start of spring, and consists of 365 days. Nine of its months consists of 30 days, one is of 31 (-Vaishakh) and other two (-Jeth and Asadh) are of 32 days. 
NAMES OF MONTHS: (1) Chaitr (-चैत्र )Mid of March to Mid of April, (2) Vaeshakh (-वैशाख) Mid of April to Mid of May, (3) Jeth (-जेठ)Mid of May to Mid of June, (4) Asadh (-असाढ़) Mid of June to Mid of July, (5) Sawan (-सावन )Mid of July to Mid of August, (6) Bhadon (-Bhadhray भादोँ )Mid of August to Mid of September, (7) Asooj Ashwin (-क्वार)Mid of September to Mid of October, (8) Kartik (-कार्तिक) Mid of October to Mid of November, (9) Maghar (-Aghanअगहन) Mid of November to Mid of December, (10) Poos पूस Mid of December Mid of January, (11) Magh (-महा-माघ) Mid of January Mid of February, (12) Phalgun (-फाल्गुन ) Mid of February to Mid of March.
PRAHR: A day constitutes of 8 Prahr (-प्रहर) and every Prahr consists of 3 hours. The day starts from 4 o'clock unlike 12 PM-mid night of other calendars.

KAL YUG (-कल युग PRESENT EPOCH-ERA): Begun 3012 BC. VIKRMI SAM VAT (विक्रमी सम्वत् ERA, FINANCIAL YEAR): Begun 57 AD.
DAYS OF THE WEEK:  Sunday: (-Ravi Var रविवार -day of Sun), Monday: (-Som Var सोमवार -day of Moon), Tuesday: (-Mangal Var मंगल वार -day of Mars), Wednesday: (-Buddh Var बुद्धवार -day of Mercury), Thursday: (-Vrahspati-Guru Var वृहस्पति-गुरु वार -day of Jupiter),  Friday: (-Shukr Var शुक्र वार-day of Venus), Saturday: (-Shani Var शनि वार-day of Saturn).
NAMES OF THE LUNAR DAYS TITHIYAN (-तिथियाँ): प्रथमाPrathma First, Dwitiya द्वितीया Second, Tratiya तृतीया Third, Chturthi चतुर्थी Fourth, Panchmi पंचमी Fifth, Shashthi  षष्ठी Sixth, Saptmi सप्तमी Seventh, Ashtmi अष्टमी Eighth, Navmi Naomi नवमी Ninth, Dashmi दशमी Tenth, Ekadshi एकादशी Eleventh, Dvadshi द्वादशी Twelfth, Tryodshi त्रयोदशी Thirteenth, Chturdashi चतुर्दशी Fourteenth, Panchdashi पञ्चदशी  Fifteenth, Purnima  (-Sukl Paksh पूर्णिमा  Full Moon); Amavshya Krashn Paksh (-अमावश्या-कृष्ण पक्ष  New Moon). The Lunar month begins with the new moon called Amavshya.


HINDU RELIGION सनातन हिन्दु धर्म 
भगवान श्री कृष्ण के हाथों में चक्र व कमल 

Dharm means-the duty assigned to us, as an individual, as a component of the family-household, member of a society, resident of a place, country, world and the universe as a whole. As a child, a teacher, a father, a mother, as a professional etc.
Simplest-easiest way to achieve Salvation-Liberation-Assimilation in God, is to discharge one's own duties religiously-honestly-faithfully-honestly-piously-righteously. One should not run away from his liabilities. Its good-appreciable to perform them with dedication
Everything prescribed by the scripters-epics, leading to Sadgati (-improvement of Perlok-next birth, abode) by undertaking auspicious, pious acts and rejecting inauspicious acts. Whole hearted efforts, expenses made; devotion of body, mind and soul, physique, ability, status, rights, capabilities for the welfare of others (-mankind, society, world), leading to the welfare of the doer is Dharm.
hindu flag
ध्वज-पताका -FLAG
Inherent prescribed/Vern-Ashram functions/duties, devoid of virtues/excellence, are better than those belonging to others-carried out methodically with perfection, since carrying out of own righteous, natural deeds keeps the doer/performer free/untainted from sins, vices, wickedness.
To bring the devotee out of confusion, the Almighty asserts that he should immerse all his prescribed-ordained-Vern-Ashram duties in him and come to his fore-refuse and that he will take care of the devotee, asks him not to worry as he will liberate–relieve him of all sins.
Accomplishment is attained by an individual worshiping the Almighty, from whom all the organisms have evolved and by whom the entire universe is pervaded, through his natural/instinctive/prescribed/Vern-Ashram related deeds.
धर्म का तात्पर्य  है: अपने कर्तव्य-दायित्व का भली भांति निर्वाह । 
मोक्ष प्राप्ति का सबसे सुगम उपाय है:  अपने कर्तव्य का मेहनत, ईमानदारी, भरोसे के साथ , धर्म समझ कर पालन करना । 
मनुष्य को चाहिये कि वह अपने कर्तव्य से भागे नहीं-विमुख न हो , उसका पूरी निष्ठा से पालन करे।  
गृहस्थ धर्म का पालन सन्यास से भी उत्तम है । 
पिता की भक्ति से इहलोक, माता की भक्ति से मध्य लोक और गुरु की भक्ति से इंद्र लोक प्राप्त होते हैं। जो इन तीनों की सेवा करता है, उसके सभी धर्म सफल हो जाते हैं; और जो इनका निरादर करता है उसकी  सभी क्रियाएं निष्फल होती हैं। जब तक ये जीवित हैं, तब तक इनकी नित्य सेवा-शुश्रूषा और इनका हित करना चाहिये। इन तीनों की सेवा-शुश्रूषा रूपी धर्म में पुरुष का सम्पूर्ण कर्तव्य पूरा हो जाता है, यही साक्षात धर्म  है।  
 स्वातिक चिन्ह के साथ कलश
One who serves-takes care of father entitles himself to the comforts-pleasures of this world, the one who is devoted to his mother attains the middle Lok(-heavens which lies in the middle of the 7 heavens) and the one who renders service to his teacher gets Inderlok. One looks after the three, is capable of attaining all Dharm and the one, who neglects-discards them suffers from, all round failure-disaster-agony.Till, they are alive, one should do his best to please-nourish them, through service-devotion. Duties-deeds-ambitions are accomplished just by the care of the trio.This is the true Dharm.

भगवान राम द्वारा युद्धमें मारे गए वानरों को जीवन दान दिया गया व उनसे वर मांगने को कहा। वानरों ने रावण की अनेकों पुत्रियों से उनका विवाह करने की प्रार्थना की। भगवान राम ने उनकी इच्छा पूरी की व उनको जालंधर (-समुद्र पुत्र, माता लक्ष्मी के भाई) द्वारा उत्पन्न किये गये 7 द्वीपों-जिनमें से बर्लिन भी एक था में, बसाया। लाल मुंह वाले व्यक्ति उन्हीं वानरों व रावण पुत्रियों की सन्तति हैं।
Swastik-World wide: Ary-Hindu-Sanatan Dharm connection: स्वास्तिक एक ऐसा चिन्ह है, जो कि दुनियां के हर भाग में मिलता है-पाया जाता है।  यह सनातन-हिन्दु (-आर्य एक आदि नाम है जो हिन्दुओं के लिए अति प्राचीन कल से प्रयुक्त होता आ रहा है और वर्तमान में भी प्रयोग में आता है और हिन्दु धर्म के नौं चिन्हों में से एक है। इसका प्रयोग नाज़ी-जर्मनी, के चांसलर हिटलर के द्वारा किया गया। 
चक्र -WHEEL
Swastik is a religious sign which has been found almost everywhere, including ancient lost civilizations. Scriptures mention the origin of all life forms from one person-Kashyap, a son of Brahma Ji and his wives. Initially life originated in Brahm Lok and there after it moved to the earth and other Lok (7 Heavens, 7 Patals and 26 Hells).
त्रिशूल TRISHUL
Bhagwan Ram made the Vaners (-a breed resembling monkeys-due to tail, with rest of features like men) alive and asked them to seek some bons, who in turn requested to be married to the daughters of Ravan, produced through illegitimate relations with innumerable women forcibly. Bhagwan fulfilled their desire and awarded them with the 7  islands created by Jalandhar-son of Samudr and brother of Ma Laxmi.  One of such islands is Berlin now Germany.                
धर्म के नाम  पर लोगों को गुमराह किया जाता है। धर्म की दुकानें कहीं भी खुल जाती हैं और धड़ल्ले से चलती हैं। लोगों की आस्था-विश्वास-धार्मिकता-मानसिकता-मनोवृति का दुरूपयोग करने वालों में राजनीतिबाज, सबसे आगे हैं।
हिंदु धर्म के 9 चिन्ह: 1.शंख, 2.चक्र, 3.गदा, 4.कमल,  5.ध्वजा, 6.ॐ, 7.स्वास्तिक, 8.त्रिशूल, 9. कलश। 

Hinduism is derived from the word Hindustan one of the many names, India had been known to the world viz., Bharat, Hindustan, Jumbu Dweep (-island), Him Varsh, Arayawart. Hinduism is derived from the word Hindustan. The true name is SANATAN DHARM – meaning thereby ancient, never ending-which is now -which was then and which will be there. Some people call it Vedic Dharm or Brahmn Dharm as well.  It all started with the desire of the Almighty to create. It's details are given on Divine calender-Hinduism: Chapter-I.
Dharm means-the duty assigned to us, as an individual, as a component of the family, member of a society, resident of a place, country,  world and the universe as a whole. As a child, a teacher, a father, a mother, as a professional etc.
We the ones, who believes in Him call Him- The Almighty, Bhagvan, Permatma, God, Khuda, Allah .He has millions of names, incarnations-AVTARS. Recitation of his names relives us of all sins; one of such verses is VISHNU SHAHASTRA NAM.
He is NIRAKAR-has no specific shape, size or alignment. He is invisible, like air or energy. He is AVAYAKT-undefined-without illustration, un revealed  It's only he, who is immortal-beyond life and death. He had infinite incarnations -AVTARS (-incarnations), in the past and will have infinite incarnations in the future as well.
परमात्मा निराकार है। उसका कोई विशिष्ट आकार  नहीं है। वह अद्रश्य है। 
वह अव्यक्त है। जन्म  मृत्यु से परे है, उसके अनंत अवतार हो चुके हैं, और आगे भी होंगे।  
He is SAKAR-Vyakt (-defined), has various-infinite shapes and sizes. He is capable of acquiring any shape, size, figure, form. He is beyond the limits of time, place, cast, creed, belief or religion.
वह  साकार है। अवतार  ग्रहण करते समय वह आकार ग्रहण करता है। वह सभी-कोई भी आकार धारण करने में समर्थ है। 
He is both material and immaterial, finite and infinite. He has unending powers, capacities, and capabilities. He is SUPREME-He is Param Pita-Per Brahm Permashwer.
वह भौतिक व अभौतिक, सीमा सहित व सीमा रहित-अनंत है। उसकी शक्तियां असीम हैं। वह  परम पिता परम ब्रह्म परमेश्वर  है। 
He is neither male nor female or impotent (-kinner, third sex) either.
वह स्त्री, पुरुष या किन्नर नहीं है।  
He is present in each and every particle, living and nonliving.  All life forms have evolved out of him and  will merge in him, ultimately.
वह  हम सब में विराजमान है। जीवन के सभी रूप उसी से उत्पन्न हुए हैं व उसी में विलीन हो जायेंगे। 

A Hindu can worship Him in any way, as per his liking. He is free to choose a  deity and worship accordingly. He may visit temple, holy places as per his will.He is free to pray in front of an idol, in a temple or in solitude.He may offer gifts, flowers, money. God welcomes him even if he offers prayers empty handed. He can recite prayers while travelling, sitting, bathing, resting or in any posture. Members of a family may be worshiping different deities at the same occasion. There is no restriction on the method of performing prayers. How ever rites, rituals, hawan, Yagy, verses needs high degree of essence, purity, notes and specific procedures. Rhythm, pronunciation, clarity in recitation is-essential, stressed. Bathing in the morning before prayers is advised. Wearing of clean clothes is advised during the prayers. Morning prayers are performed facing east and evening prayers are performed facing north. However, again, there is no restriction on direction,time, mode.
This is a religion which provides unlimited freedom. Any one can adopt it, without conversion.
This is the source of all faiths and practice, including Mallechs.
Religion has four pillars (fundamental tenets) :
1. Gyan-Knowledge-Enlightenment: Knowing-identifying self, self realization.
2. Dhyan-Concentration/meditation/contemplation; deep thinking.
3. Shum: Controlling of mind/brain,heart and soul.Disciplining/restraining self,absence of passion, peace of mind, quietness/rest.
4. Dum: Self control, restraint, mortification, sub-dued feelings.
HINDUISM (हिन्दुत्व) SANATAN  DHARM (2-II) : Evolution

It's only on the earth that the living beings have physical-material bodies, elsewhere they are Divine.

A soul is able to acquire a human body only after passing through 84,00,000 cycles of births and rebirths (i.e.; incarnations), through different species of plants and animals. Saints, sages meditate at isolated places- deep woods, mountain caves for millions of years, without meals surviving only on water/air or just by chewing the leaves of trees. Most of them die to reborn again and continue the process for many- many rebirths, without any result. A few of them, who succeed in concentrating/discipline their mind, body and soul are able to attain Salvation-Liberation-Assimilation in the Ultimate-Almighty i.e., Moksh.

Purity of their heart and efforts take them to the abode of the Deity they prayed for, as per their Karm- deeds. With the dilution of their Karm Fal, they take rebirth on this earth. The species of rebirth is decided by the Karm Fal in higher abodes or the earth itself. The soul which is born in India is superior to the one which is reborn elsewhere, on earth. Amongest those souls who are born in India, the souls which took birth as humans in between the plains of Holy Rivers Ganga and Ymuna are more pious. It’s only here in India, where the embodiment of soul –the humans can perform or do some Karm, leading to higher Loke of the Deity, Heaven or Salvation. Elsewhere on earth, it’s all the result of deeds –the Karm Fal, through which the soul has to pass.
A sin committed in the plains of Ganga and Ymuna, any of the Tirth or the 7 Puries-Kashi, Ayodhya, Jaggan Nath..., is sufficient to send the soul to hells and in numerable cycle of births and rebirths.
Soul has no sex. This is minute of the minutest, which can not be sub divided further. It's neither male nor female. It acquires the shape and size of thumb of man, before being captured by the Yum Doot's at the time of death, to be taken to Yum Lok. Its gati (-movement is decided by Chitr Gupt as per its deeds in millions of life- death cycles).It can rise up to Vaikunth or may fall into any of the 28 Narak (-Hell's).
Other than these Shwet Dweep, Marut Lok, Sury Lok, Chandr Lok, Yum Lok, Varun Lok, Indra Lok, Agni Lok, Vayu Lok, Dhruv Lok, Nag Lok etc., do exist.
Shwet Dweep: Abode of bhagwan Vishnu and Maa Laxmi, accompanied by Bhagwan Shash Nag. 
Marut Lok/Vayu Lok: Abode of Pawan Dev-the deity/demi god  of air. 
Sury Lok: Abode of Bhagwan Sury Narayan-The Sun God. 
Chandr Lok : The abode of Chandr Dev-the deity of medicines and (-born out of the ocean on the earth) king of Brahmns.
Yum Lok: Abode of Yum Dev and transit point for all soulsmighty son of Sury Bhagwan and deity of death and awards next birth according to sins and virtues of the soul in previous birth.
Varun Lok: Abode of Varun Dev-the deity/demi god of water.
Indra Lok: Abode of Indr-King of heaven and deities-demi gods, deity of rains and responsible for the welfare of humans on earth.
Agni Lok: Abode of Agni Dev the deity/demi god of fire.
All these Loks are inhabitable. The body in these habitats is not a material body the one acquired by us on this earth.
The sins take a soul into the hell, as per its accumulated deeds, in thousands and thousands of births and re births. A soul released from the Hell, having undergone the punishment for its sins, takes birth as insects. Some souls are reborn as birds, animals, trees, shrubs.etc, as per their deeds as humans in one or the other birth. At occasions humans love for some animal/creature becomes the reason to acquire that particular embodiment, before rebirth as humans. The soul keep moving from one species to another or from one Loke (-Abode) to another Loke, as per its good or bad deeds in one or the other Yoni (-Species).
Good works/deeds, Yagy, Charity, Piousity, Virtues, Helping the needy, perceiving God in each and every creature, considering each and every individual to be equal, takes the soul to Heaven i.e., Divine incarnations.
Pleasure and pain are synonyms of Heaven and Hell, respectively. After enjoying its stay in heaven, the soul returns to the earth, to reborn as human being in well to do, respectable and established family. The game of snake and ladder continues playing its role till the human being takes the path of Salvation, by reforming himself and purify his deeds.
When a human being born in India; make efforts to purify himself for salvation, through Ascetic practices, Yagy, Meditation, Prayers, Yog, Sacrifices, Donations, Honesty, Truth, Charity, Helping the needy in distress and trouble, Reading /Writing/Listening/Understanding/ Following /Practicing, Vedic literature: Ved’s, Upnishad, Puran, Geeta, Ramayan, Maha Bharat, Brahman etc., followed in next rebirths, he entitles himself for Moksh/Salvation i.e., assimilation in God. Souls in various universes, having attained Moksh, assimilate themselves in God or the Deity prayed to. The Deity, itself do pray to the God for Moksh. Having being granted Moksh, the Deity, too immerse itself into the God.
Any one, who is better than the best, craves for excellence in a particular field and strives to protect and safe guard the human beings, is a partial or complete incarnation of the Almighty-The God called: Bhagwan, Khuda, Allah. Each and every Deity in itself is an incarnation of the God.
Para Prkrtity (-परा प्रकृति ), Krishan, Radha, Maha Virat Purush, Maha-Shiv, Brahma, Vishnu, Maha Laxmi, Saraswati, Savitry and Ganga are all alike, so are the animals, plants, humans.The way a molecule of water moves from the oceans to air and reaches back, after passing through various cycles of nature, the soul meets the Almighty, after purification in many many incarnations.

HINDUISM (हिन्दुत्व) SANATAN DHARM (2-III): Evolution  
Permatma, The Supreme Soul, whether defined or undefined-material or energy, is the abode of all souls. He constitutes of two components: The body and the Soul-The Shakti (Power). Shakti is Devi Maa Bhagwati- the Mother Nature. Initially, the Permatma emerged as Himself, Shri Krishan-The divine form of Almighty, from the undefined to defined and splitted into two- Shri Krishan, the Maha Kameshwar and Devi Maa Bhagwati. Their love making process continued for ten Manvanters. During this process, both of them started breathing and a fluid emerged in the form of sweat.
Deep breathing process resulted in the birth of Pawan Dev, the Deity of Air. Pawan Dev splitted into two, i.e., himself and his wife. They had five sons.
The fluid turned into water and resulted in the birth of Varun Dev-the Deity of water. Varun Dev too, divided into two i.e., himself and his wife.
As a result of the sexual intercourse, between The Almighty Shri Krashn and Devi Maa Bhagwati-Radha a child was born, who became Maha Virat Purush-Maha Vishnu, from whom evolved all the universes.
From the tongue of Devi Bhagwati emerged the Devi Saraswati. Bhagwati Radha evolved from the right and Bhagwati Laxmi evolved from the left of Bhagwati Saraswati.
Maha Vishnu emerged out of Shri Krishan, the Almighty. Shri Krishan himself formed the right side component, while the left side component evolved as Maha Vishnu.
Radha Ji and Maha Laxmi emerged out of Devi Saraswati.
Shri Krishan awarded Vaikunth Lok to Maha Vishnu along with Laxmi Ji, Devi Saraswati also joined them. Shri Krishan and Maha Vishnu; have the same status. Maha Vishnu- the protector of all the Universes settled in Vaikunth Loke with Devi Maha Laxmi- the deity of all comforts, wealth, luxuries and worldly possessions, along with the Devi Saraswati, the Goddess of all learning, speech, knowledge and music.
Shri Krishan and Devi Bhagwati Radha, the Mother Nature, the Maha Maya, the Maha Shakti stayed in Gau Loke, The Center of all Universes.
Devi Durga emerged from Shri Krishan along with, four headed Brahma and Brahmani, followed by five headed Bhagwan Maha Shiv.
Brahma Ji along with Brahmani, were sent to Brahm Lok by Shri Krishan.
Devi Durga the Shakti of Maha Shiv, joined him in Shiv Lok.
Later, a segment evolved out of Devi Saraswati in Vaikunth Loke, joined Brahma Ji in Brahm Lok as his Shakti.
While, listening to the music by Bhagwan Shiv-from the earth in our universe, Shri Krishan and Radha Ji merged together in Gau Loke and formed Holy River Ganga .They reappeared on the request and prayer of Bhagwan Shiv.
Devi Ganga was sent to Vaikunth Lok as the third wife of Bhagwan Vishnu. Devi Tulsi from Gau Lok is the fourth wife of Maha Vishnu.
The Maha Virat Purush born out of Shri Krishan and Devi Bhagwati produced as many Universes, as were the bristles/spores on his body.
Gau Lok is the center of all the Universes. Vaikunth Lok have the same status as that of Gau Lok with respect to our universe. Gau Lok and Vaikunth Lok last longer than any other place, among all the Universes in the space, which are bound to perish one day or the other.
Each Universe has a Chhudr Virat Purush, from whom originated the Trinity of Brahma-the Creator, Vishnu-the Protector and Mahesh-the Destroyer.
Left half of Chhudr Virat Purush produced Chatur Bhuj Vishnu-with his abode in Swat Dweep. From the navel of Chuddra Virat Purush emerged the Brahma on lotus-with his abode in Brahm Lok. From the forehead of Brahma Ji beamed the Mahesh- having his abode at Kailash. These three together are not different from one another, in any way. They are the constituents of the Supreme All Almighty Param Pita Per Brahm Permashwer in our universe.
Devi Savitri and Devi Gaytry are the wives of Bhagwan Brahma in Brahm Lok.
Devi Laxmi is the wife of Bhagwan Vishnu in Shwate Dweep.
Devi Parwati is the wife of Bhagwan Shiv, as the incarnation of Sati, on Kailash.
Brahma Ji requested Mahesh to create life. He created eleven Rudra, who were all alike him. They are Dikpals (-possessors of directions 10 in number) now positioned in ten directions. Mahesh showed his inability to do this further. Dev Rishi Narad came off Brahma’s forehead. Brahma's forehead yielded the Sapt Rishi's.
Daksh Prajapati took birth from the right leg toe and his wife from the left leg toe of Brahma. They were married off by Brahma Ji.
One of the daughters of Daksh Prajapati was married to Kashyap. 
Kashyap, one of the seven Rishishs, is the source of all life forms, which originated sexually, in our universe. 
भगवान श्री कृष्ण : जगत के उतपत्ति कर्ता,          Bhagwan Shri Krashn is the first embodiment of the nirakar Almighty.  
भगवती राधा : भगवान श्री कृष्ण की चिर संगिनी, Bhagwati Radha: The power-might-strength of the Almighty.
विराट पुरुष:  महा विष्णु-भगवान श्री कृष्ण और राधा जी के पुत्र-समस्त बृह्मांडों के जनक; Virat Purush:- The creator of  all Universes, Son of Bhagwan Shri Krshan and Radha Ji. 
भगवान विष्णु : पालन हार;                                                     Almighty Bhagwan Vishnu:- The Nurturer.
भगवान ब्रह्मा जी:  उत्पत्ति कर्ता;                                        Almighty Bhagwan Brahma Ji: The Creator.
भगवान शिव: विध्वंसक-नष्ट कर्ता;                                         Almighty Bhagwan Shiv:-  The Destroyer. 
इन्द्र: देवताओं के राजा;                                                    INDR:- King of Heaven-Demi Gods, Nurturers-protects earth through rains and nourishment.
पवन-मारुत-वायु देव: वायु प्रवाह;                                                          PAWAN DEV:- Deity of wind-air. 
वरुण: जल के देवता;                                                                          VARUN DEV:- Deity of water-rain.
समुद्र: पृथ्वी पर जल के संग्रह कर्ता;                           SAMUDR:- Incarnation of Bhagwan Vishnu-Ocean.
गंगा, यमुना, सरस्वती, कावेरी, गोदावरी गोमती : पवित्र नदियाँ; Ganga, Ymuna, Sarswati, Kaveri, Godavri, Gomti:- Holy rivers  
गणेश: विघ्न विनाशक, रुकावट-परेशानी दूर कर्ता;                  Ganesh:-son of Bhagwan Shiv and Maan Parwati, protects from troubles, makes the job easier, helps in over coming difficulty.Provides enlightenment-intelligence-prudence.
शक्ति (-पार्वती, शिव पत्नी, दुर्गा, भवानी, अम्बे ): भगवती अवतार-शक्ति दायक; Shakti:-Wife-consort of Bhagwan Shiv-grants might-power-strength
धनवंतरी: चिकित्सा;                                       Dhanwantri:- Son of Samudr-The Divine Doctor. 
Ashwani Kumars:- Two sons of Bhagwan Sury:- Doctor of demi Gods-deities.
कार्तिकेय: शिव व पार्वती पुत्र-देव सेनापति;                             Bhagwan Kartikey:- Chief of Divine armies.
लक्ष्मी: भगवन विष्णु की पत्नी-धन की देवी, Daughter of Samudr & Wife of Bhagwan Vishnu
सरस्वती: विष्णु पत्नी-ज्ञान-संगीत की  देवी, SARSWATI:-Goddess-Deity of learning & Music.
कुबेर: धन के रक्षक-खजांची, यक्षों के राजा;                                         Kuber:- King of Yaksh & Treasurer. 
शनि: भाग्य के देवता;                                                                                   Shani-Saturn:- Deity of Luck.
वृहस्पति: देव गुरु;                                       Vrhspati:- Philosopher-teacher & giude of Demi Gods-deities.
शुक्र: राक्षसों के गुरु, सर्वश्रेष्ठ कवि;                                  Shukr-Venus:- Philosopher-teacher & giude of Demons/Rakshash/Giants-King of Poets.
चन्द्र देव: ब्राह्मणों के राजा, औषधियों के उत्पत्ति करता और रक्षक, प्यार-मोह;     Moon-Chandr:- Son of Samudr & King of Brahmns, nourishes medicines, love, imagination, travel.
बुद्ध: चन्द्र पुत्र-चतुराई-ज्ञान, बुद्धि के दाता;  Mercury:  Son of Chandr-Moon-Provides intelligence
काम देव: काम-उत्तेजना, वासना, प्यार; Kam Dev:- Sensuality, Sex, Lust, Sexuality, Passions.
रति: काम देव की पत्नी-काम वर्धक;            Rati:-helps her husband in sexual pleasure-passions-sensuality. 
मंगल: भगवान शिव व पृथ्वी पुत्र;                                                                    Mars: War, Welfare. 
हनुमान: 11 वे रूद्र, शिव स्वरूप देवताओं के रक्षक व सहायक; Hanuman Ji:- Protector of Deities-Demi Gods. 
पृथ्वी: समस्त प्राणियों का भार धारण करने वाली, Mother Earth:  Bears all the creatures over her.
यम राज-धर्म राज: मृत्यु, धर्म कर्म, पुनर्जन्म, लोक-परलोक निर्धारण, कर्म फल;  YUM-DHARM  RAJ:-Death-Rebirth
भगवान शेष नाग: पृथ्वी को अपने फन पर धारण करने वाले-भगवान विष्णु के शेष अवतार, Shesh nag:-Incarnation of Bhagwan Vishnu; holds the earth in its orbit round the Sun on his hood.  

परा प्रकृति 
There is no difference between the Almighty-Param Brahm Permashwer and Bhagwati-the mother 
nature. They are one entity.
The difference/distinction between the two is a result of confusion/illusion of mind.
The enlightened, who identifies/recognizes/perceives the micro/extremely small/acute difference between the two, detaches from the world and becomes free for ever from the cycles of birth and rebirth. He attains Salvation. There is no doubt in it.
Brahm is one, unique, forever, continuous, eternal. He appears to be two, at the time of creation/evolution, male- Shri Krishan and female- Radha Ji.
Though one, the Almighty and Bhagwati becomes multiple due to different titles, which create artificial distinctions.
This differentiation/distinction becomes pronounced at the time of creation/evolution. It’s not possible to generate without division into two.
At the time of destruction, he is neither male/female or impotent. When evolution begins, the distinction returns/reappears due to the thoughts (-intelligence-mind-brain).
No creature/organism devoid of her, can tremble/quiver/throb/vibrate/pulsate.
She is a component of all Demy Gods by different names as Shakti (-The Power) and shows off as vigor  might, velour, valiant, deeds and exploit.
She resides in Saty Lok as Maha Saraswati, the Shakti of Brahma and establishes the honor consecration of seedlings (-basic characters of all organisms in seed form) of all organisms with their deeds and characters.
Maha Shakti of Vishnu resides in Vaikunth Loke with Shri Hari and Maha Kali Durga-Gauri stays with Shiv at Mount Kailash.
Every learned/enlightened person knows a bit of Maa Bhagwati. Gyani (-LEARNED, ENLIGHTENED,ACKNOWLEDGED, PHILOSOPHER, SCHOLAR, PUNDIT) Brahma Ji knows more than the enlightened. Guru of the Gyanis, Ganesh Ji specifically knows more than him. Shiv, who knows all/everything, knows more about the Bhagwati as compared to all those, who know her.
Almighty Shri Krishan blessed Shiv with the knowledge of sacred-complicated secret characters of Bhagwati in an isolated Ras Mandal of Gau Lok.
Supreme soul, God of all, root cause of everything, basic figure of all, one who knows everything, one who nurture every one, the Almighty, reveals himself as Bhagwati. Everything in nature evolves out of him.          
HINDUISM (हिन्दुत्व) SANATAN DHARM (2-IV): Evolution
Shiv is considered to be the cause-reason behind the creation of this universe.
Pawan (-Vayu, Demy God who regulates the Air) and Varun Dev (-Demy God) who regulates water and all vehicles), evolved prior to Maha Virat Purush.
A Golden (-Hirany) egg, brighter than the Sun, appeared in water like a gigantic bubble, illuminating everything around, called Hirany Garbh (-womb). Everything composing universe- all abodes including  Heavens, Earth , Moon, Sun, Demons, Demi Gods, Humans and all that had to be created  were present in it, in embryonic state/form.

Virat Purush-Vishnu, an incarnation of Maha Virat Purush- the son of Almighty Shri Krishan and Radha Ji, emerged out of it and evolved/created his three incarnations viz. Brahma Ji- the creator from his right with 7 characters, Mahesh (-Rudra) -the destroyer from his middle with 11 characters and Vishnu-the nurturer/protector from his right body segment with 8 characters. Para Shakti-the Divine Power of  Bhagwan Vishnu is associated with him by performing the functions like nurturing/maintaining/illusion-attachment in this universe.

Brahma Ji and Bhagwan Vishnu looked at each other and argued that the other one was created by him. Brahma Ji told that the entire universe was present in him. Bhagwan Vishnu entered in Brahma's mouth to see it and found that the entire universe was present there in the stomach. He jokingly allowed Brahma to find what was there in him. Brahma Ji too found everything in him. Bhagwan Vishnu closed his mouth and allowed him to come off through the navel lotus. Brahma Ji asked him to ask for a boon. Bhagwan Vishnu asked him to accept himself as his father-Creator and Brahma Ji obliged. There appeared a gigantic Shiv Ling on the scene. By way of curiosity, both of them entered into it, but failed to find its origin or the end for thousands of years. tired they both retreated. They heard a voice telling them to meditate. They both requested the voice (-Aakash Vani) to tell who he was and who were they. The voice told them that he was Shiv-The Adi Purush, their creator. Brahma Ji asked him for a boon, on being asked, to appear as his son and the voice agreed to oblige him. Having meditated for long long years Maha Shiv asked Brahma Ji to start the creation of Universe.
Brahma Ji is the source of all life forms spreaded over 7 Swarg, Earth, 7 Patal and 28 Narak (-Hells) and various other higher abodes.All life forms evolved/originated/created in Saty Lok- the abode of Brahma.There after they were moved to a abode/Lok, depending upon their deeds in previous births.
Sequence/appearance of sages, their number, their names, is found to be different in different
Kalps-Brahma's day.Some variations have been noticed in the evolution of various life forms/creatures/organisms as well. One should not be confused by these variations.
Brahma Ji's creations are of two types:
(I) Divine creations settled in heavens-higher abodes.
Yaksh, Rakshash, Asur who were the first to evolved from the thies of Brahma Ji, ran towards him, to eat him, shouting Yaksh Yaksh meaning: eat him, followed by Rakshash's, shouting Rakshash-Rakshash meaning: don't protect him. Brahma Ji told them that he was their father-creator and therefore they should not eat him. Brahma Ji rejected the origional/that body to acquire a new one. Deserted body turned into night (darkness constituting of smoke, fog, mist, dust, evening, dawn-Sunset-morning- pleasing both Yaksh and Rakshash. Rakshash are termed as Demons , Asur and Anti Demy Gods, as well, due to their nature habits, desire for sex/ lust, darkness.
Sages evolved from the forehead/mind and other body parts were named: Bhragu (from heart), Marichi (from eyes), Atri (from ears), Angira (from head), Pulasty ( from udan Vayu air), Puleha (from Vyan Vayu , Kretu ( from apan Vayu) and Vashishth (from Saman Vayu), Kardam ( from shadow), Dharm (from determination) along with innumerable sons including Kashyap.
Bhagwan Shiv/Maheshwar/Ardhnarishwer evolved from the center of eye brows and the nose.Nondescript/uncharctarised Brahm Shiv (A-ling) is Ling (-nature). Nature (-ling) is a component of Shiv. Devoid of Sound-word,touch-figure, extract/elixir (-juice), smell is Shiv.  Non-descript, un-moved, un-deteriorating, A-ling, nirgun- no specific characteristic- component is shiv.The nature associated with word-sound, touch-feeling, figure-shape and size, extract-juices, smells is the excellence of Shiv- is the producer-evolver of -creator of universe- with 5 components which were , which are, which will be there are: Earth, Water, Tej-energy-light, Space, Air. Micro-Macro, all components/sections of universe have been created from the un-descript Permatma/Almighty Shiv. Its, Aling/ non-descript due to the Maya- illusionary Power  of God and constitute  of 7, 8 or 9 shapes/figures of Ling Tatw (Components/Elements). Bhagwan Shiv is capable of moving freely, in 14 universes as per his will.
 Manas Putr (-Brain child, always remain naked and appear/seen as  kids) Sanak, Sanandan, Sanatan and Sanat Kumar; Dev Rishi Narad evolved from the from the fore head of Bahama Ji. They were capable of moving freely in all abodes, including earth. Devs, Humans too evolved from there.
From the thies of Brahma Ji evolved Yaksh, Asurs/Rakshash/Demons/Danav, after acquisition of new body followed by Gandharv and Apsra by acquiring another glowing body.
Next bodies to be acquired were (i) Tejomaei (-full of energy-glittering-illuminated), which produced Sandhey Gan and Pitre Gan.(ii) Tiro Dhan, yielding Siddh, Vidya Dhar, Pritibimb (reflection)-Kinners (important), Kim Purush ( important).
Anger/Tandra produced ghosts (Bhoot, Pishach) and spirits.
From the hair evolved the servants.
Krat-Kraty were produced/evolved from the heart of Brahma Ji, through Indriy Sanyam (-self control, Control of senses, Asceticism, Enlightenment, Yog, Trans meditation, Salvation).
Daksh Praja Pati -evolved from the right leg toe of Brahma Ji.
Brahma Ji evolved Manu from his right half and Shatrupa from his left half.
(II) Physical- material creations became the inhabitants of earth. Brahma Ji evolved Manu from his right half and Shatrupa from his left half. Manavs-Humans took birth from them. Manu and Shatrupa had two sons-Priyvert & Uttan Pad and two daughters -Akuti & Prasuti.
Prasuti was married to Daksh Praja Pati. They had 60 daughters of which 14 were married to Kashyap, from whom evolved the entire living population on earth.
In all 9 types of life forms, which involved evolution through sexual means, in addition to creations made by Brahma Ji through his body-rejecting it again and again, were created depending upon their nature/characters in their previous innumerable incarnations-births, having these major divisions: Prakret-3, Vaikret-5 and Komary Sarg-1.
PRAKRT SARG (-प्राक्रत सर्ग)  : Initially, it evolved out of the brain of Brahma Ji’s intelligence-brain-mind-prudence, which was further sub divided into; Adi Sarg आदि सर्ग , Bhoot Sarg भूत सर्ग and Aendrik Sarg, ऐन्द्रिक सर्ग.
(I):  Adi Sarg (-stage) Mahatatv/Brahm Sarg- Presence of defects-differentiation in Satvik, Rajsik and Tamsik characters, is its significance. It constitutes mainly of Vaikarik/Temo Guni/Tamsik characters - Yaksh, Rakshash, Asur-Demons were created out of the defects of Brahm. They were the ones to evolved first, as result-consequence of ignorance, defect and disorder. They represent darkness, shadow, sinners, cruelty, brutality, imprudence, lack of virtues, lack of sympathy and Avidya (-absence of enlightenment, tendency to act in an opposite direction). They were meat eaters, blood thirsty, desirous of sex and alcoholic.
Avidya has 5 categories:
(i) Tamistr-represent shadow. The ones, whose soul, mind and heart are full of darkness.
(ii) Andh-Tamistr: Possess eyes but behaves as/like blind. Their soul, mind, heart and body are full of darkness.
(iii) Tam: Darkness, represent lack of enlightenment.
(iv) Moh: Attachment, desires, sexuality and sensuality.
 (v) Maha Moh: Unlimited desires, extreme Moh. Hunger- thirst for power, possessions, lack of thoughtfulness and feelings, are the basic components of their nature. Their constitution reflected darkness. Yaksh Rakshash and Asurs constituted this category.
 (2) Bhotic (-Physical)-Bhoot Sarg: It's dependent upon past 5 basic characteristics namely- shape, extract (-juice), smell, touch and sound. Bhoot (-past) Adi Sarg : Constitutes of those who have departed.
(3) Vaikarik (-distorted, disordered, defective) Aendrik Sarg: It involves creation of senses and sense organs.
Vaikret: 5 main divisions
4. Mukhy (-main) Stationary- Stable/fixed: Mountains/Hills, Trees Plants-Shrubs-Straws-Thickets (-under growth).
 5. Triyak Strota/Taiyarg Yoni (-movement):  Animals and birds. They constitute of 28 categories. They are without the knowledge of time period. Excess of Temo gun shows of in sexual behavior  eating and drinking and sleep only. Movement of food in their stomach takes place in curved path. They can identify the materials by smelling. They are devoid of thinking and farsighted ness.
Two hoofs: Cow, goat, bullock, deer, antelope, pig, sheep, camel etc.
Single hoof: Donkey, horse, pony, gaur, shraf, chamry-yak etc.
Five claws: Animals-Dog, wolf, tiger, cat, rabbit, lion, monkey, elephant, tortoise, goh-lizard/dinosaurs, crocodile, sahi (-porcupine) etc. Birds-vultures, crow, owl, crane, peacock,  duck, swan etc.  
6. Dev Sarg- Urdh Strota (-Demi Gods-Deities) with Satvik Nature. Movement of food constituting of offerings by humans takes place from bottom to top.  Don’t consume material form of food, truthful, extremely comfort providing.
7. Arwak Strota-Humans: Movement of food takes place from top to bottom, exhibit dominance of Rajsik- passionate characters. Satvik and Tamsik characters are also present, though in lesser quantity. They are devoted to Karm and pleasure in passions-sensualities which yield pain-sorrow-grief.
8. Anugrah Sarg: associated with both Satvik and Tamsik tendencies
9. Komary Sarg: Constitutes of both Prakrat (-natural) and Vaikret. Prakrat was created out of Intelligence/brain/mind/prudence. 
Kashyap produced the above mentioned organisms from his wives as listed below:
1. Aditi (Dev Mata) had 12 sons known as Adity-Sun  in addition to Demy Gods.
2. Surbhi (Gau Mata) produced all quadrupeds -horses,cows, buffaloes.
3. Dity (Daity Mata-mother of demons) gave birth to Demons named Hirany Kashpu and Hiranyaksh, 49 Maruts.
4. Danu (Daity Mata) produced Danav.
5. Sursa gave birth to Rakshash.
6. Muni/Aristha is the mother of Gandharv- divine singers and Apsra- divine dancers.
7. Vinitay (Daity Mata) had Arun- Sun's chariot driver, Garud Ji-Bhagwan Vishnu's carrier-a bird & daughters who became the mothers of all birds.
8. Kadru (Daity Mata) became the mother of all servants/snakes-Bhagwan Shash Nag, Vasuki, Takshak etc.
9. Khasa produced ugly demy gods and companions of Kuber, named after Yaksh and Rakshash.
10. Sursa produced Rakshash.
11. Ira/Ila gave birth to all types of, trees,creepers, shrubs, bushes herbs.
12. Krodhvasa created Ghosts and Pishachs.
13. Tandra became the mother of wild animals and
14. Pitre had all dead ancestors and 10 Pralapati's as her sons.
In all 4 types of means of reproduction have been described in the Shastr, namely: Andaj (अंडज)-taking birth through the egg, Swedaj (स्वेदज): taking birth through contact by means of sweat, Udbhijj (उद्भिज्ज)-vegetative, sprouting, germinating, Garbhaj (गर्भज)/Jarayuj (जरायुज)-born out of placenta, viviparous, mammalian.

HINDUISM (हिन्दुत्व) SANATAN DHARM (2-V) : Evolution
At least 26 subatomic particles are known to us, there may be even more, to be identified sooner or later. We may soon, come across such elements which have never been heard of, on our earth. The periodic table which is based on physical and; chemical properties, might soon be switched over/drafted on the basis of nuclear properties. Electron and Positron are two such sub-atomic particles, which combine to produce Gamma-rays pure energy form. Neutrons break down to produce one proton and one electron. Photons, the light particles and electrons, identified as fastest moving particles, have dual nature: particle and wave. It has been reported that particles/rays have been found which have speeds much higher than photons/light.
कपिल मुनि  ने सांख्य शास्त्र में कहा है : न वस्तुनो वस्तुसिद्धिः ॥ 1-43॥ Nothing can be created from space-zero state, unless until the basic components are already present-available. Law of conservation of matter states that “matter can neither be created nor be destroyed, as a result of any physical or chemical change, but it can be transformed from one state to another”. The law is incomplete without considering nuclear reactions, which change the basic configuration of atom or the molecule. Einstein Principle states that “Energy can be converted to mass and mass can be converted to energy."
Energy leads to the formation of protons-Hydrogen, particles. Hydrogen fuses to produce Helium isotopes. The chain once began leads to the formation of oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Uranium of course intermediaries like Lead. In nascent state (newly born), both hydrogen and oxygen are extremely reactive. They produce water most essential for living organisms. The process of formation of new atoms and molecules does not stop here. More and more complex molecules are formed, the process is never ending. Meteors, Asteroids, Planets, Sun, Solar-System, Galaxies, Super Galaxies, Constellations, tail star were all formed in this manner.The make and break process is still on and is likely to continue infinitely. Gau Lok and Vaikunth Lok are the only exceptions, since they will last longer than the others.
Vast oceans are reservoirs of water, on earth, moon, Venus, mars or the Saturn. Mountain cliffs-caps, laden with ice, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, wells, underground currents of water, tap water: are all different sources of water.
Each and every molecule of water irrespective of its source has absolutely same properties. Solid-ice, Liquid-water, Gaseous: steam or vapors, Ionic or Plasmic do represent one and the same thing i.e. water. It’s capable of taking the shape and size of the container. The soul present in different creatures is absolutely the same as the God himself.
Water keeps evaporating from reservoirs, gets mixed with air in the form of moisture and takes the shape of clouds, forms monsoon, which moves over to the land and converts into rain. At places, it takes the shape of hails/hail storms or start falling as snow. On the top of the mountain, the snow hardens and it takes the shape of mountain cliff. During summers, the ice melts and takes the shape of streams/rivers/lakes etc. Monsoon showers, on the land/houses/water bodies, produce different channels or pools of water. Water from these sources is either evaporated or consumed in different manners. This water is contaminated in various ways. Water is recycled and put to use again and again. Often the treated water is used for agriculture purposes, and harvesting. Water is distilled to 100% purity, for chemical/nuclear purposes. It exhibits various physical states in addition to Heavy water which is used in nuclear reactors, for nuclear research and energy purposes. Similarly,
The soul keep revolving from one species to another, one abode to another, from one universe to another, from one deity to another, unless until it becomes free from all sins or virtues, to merge into the Almighty for ever.
In its purest form/molecular state, water constitutes of two atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen. Hydrogen has three isotopes i.e., Hydrogen, Deuterium, Tritium. Similarly, Oxygen does exhibit isotopes. In molecular state, Hydrogen has two atoms and Oxygen too has two in normal state and three as Ozone. In addition to this, both Hydrogen and Oxygen have nascent states in which, they are very reactive and can’t exist freely in nature. Plasma states of Hydrogen and Oxygen are one of the biggest reservoirs of energy. Release of tremendous amount of energy by Hydrogen, through nuclear fusion is well known. Source of energy on the Sun is also a case of nuclear fusion. Two atoms of hydrogen combine to form Hydrogen molecule and two atoms of oxygen combine to form, Oxygen molecule. Two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen combine to form a water molecule.
Each and every molecule has the properties of its parent substance-the molecule. An atom has all the properties of the parent element. We are the molecules, God is the parent substance-compound, if we are atoms, and God is the parent element.
Hydrogen is the basic element, which through various permutations and combinations, produces larger/heavier elements. Larger molecules of the same element, having four or more atoms, are found in nature, like Tetra/Na no Carbon. The process of hydrogen formation and release of energy are cyclic and reversible in nature.
Photon, a component of light from the Sun, which breaks water into hydrogen, which further breaks down into plasmic state. The energy released, travels back to the Sun, with the help of some particle, providing a never ending source of power. Piousity, virtues, welfare of living beings,charity, donations, high moral character, good deeds offered to the God, strengthen the Demy Gods to take care of the humans.
A soul is the single/smallest unit of life form, which can exist in either material/divine bodies or even freely without a body. Two or more souls having same orientation can fuse together into one. The living being may be both: Material as well as Divine. 
It may constitute of a soul or a quantum of souls. Soul is like the driver of the body of the creature/the organism. Body is dead without it-a lump of clay/mound/dust particle. All souls have their origin in Brahma and they merge into him at the time of destruction.
The way a molecule of water moves from the oceans to air and reaches back, after passing through various cycles of nature. The soul having born out of the God meets him again and again, after attaining Salvation ultimately, to depart again since nothing is permanent/constant/stationary. Still, there are the souls, which never depart after assimilation in The Almighty.
 No one is Ajar or Amar (Indestructibility-permanent-for ever), how so ever, high or mighty he be, he has to go, one day or the other. A dust particle becomes earth after falling over it. A drop of water, becomes ocean after falling in it. The soul becomes Permatma-the Almighty, after assimilation in it.

( Entire content on this blog is dedicated to Ganpati, Bhagwan Ved Vyas and Mata Saraswati and is the result of persuasion by my son Prashant Bhardwaj & devotion of my wife Mithilesh Bhardwaj. Hari Om Tat-Sat.)
Glossary: (Ajar-one who does not grow old, Amar-one who does not die, Bhagwan-Allah/God/Khuda, Chuddra-small, Dik Pal-one who takes care of one of the ten directions, Dweep-Island, Gau-cow, Karm-deeds/works, Karm Fal-reward/punishment of good/bad deeds/virtues/sins, Loke-heavenly body, Moksh-Salvation i.e,freedom from the vicious cycle of births and rebirths, Param-higher than the highest -the ultimate, Pita- father, Purush- man, Rudra- one who weeps, Swat-white, Sapt- seven, Sanyasi-Ascetic -Hermit-Sage-Saint, Tirth-Holy places in India, Yoni-life form or species, Yagy-sacrifices made to the God by offerings through fire, Virat-great/large).

NARAD PURAN नारद पुराण 
Attainment of Moksh-Salvation needs a teacher-Guru, who can guide and show/pave the path, which leads to assimilation in God. It’s possible through attainment of knowledge, learning, understanding and practicing the Shashtr-scriptures and Vedic literature. Self-learning (-Swadhayay), does help in the absence of a Guru. 
Anyone who has been dedicated to pious deeds, prayers, ascetic practices, Yog, Bhakti, devotion and service/welfare of the mankind, successfully make his senses and sensualities- pious-pure-virtuous. His inner self becomes pure, after successive rebirths making him eligible for Salvation in the very first stage of life, i.e., Brahmchary Ashram like Suck Dev Ji-son of Bhagwan Ved Vyas.
The learned-enlightened has to reject Rajsik (-passionate behavior) and Tamsik (-darkness, sinful acts) defects and follow the path of Satvik Karm (-goodness). He should visualize-observe-see (-Sakshatkar) the soul (-Parmatma-The Almighty) through consciousness, meditation and intelligence.  He should identify (-visualize/perceive) himself in the past and the past in himself. This will help him to analyze- reason and detach from the defects-disgrace of this world and attain the position which is ever lasting.

1. Those people (Dwij-Brahmn, Kshatriy, Vaishy), who are blessed with the knowledge-ability-capabilities of the fundamentals of Salvation, observes-understand-recognizes the visualization-glow, in their inner self and nowhere else. This glow-light is present in each and every living being in the same proportion.

 2.The one, devoted to trans-meditation, can himself experience the presence of Almighty in his inner self  by controlling his mind and concentrating in this glow-light (-Atm Prakash).
3. The one, who is not afraid of any one and others are also not afraid of him, is capable of visualization of self.

4. One who is without desires and ill-will, jealousy, rivalry, attains the stage of Brahm.

5. When the man do not disgrace, tease any other being, through his thoughts (-body, mind and speech) and actions, he attains the status of Brahm.

6.When he rejects the envy, sex-lust, desires, greed leading to attachments and subject himself to asceticism, he experiences Brahmanand (-the ultimate pleasure, extreme happiness).
7.When the person weighs the subjects to be listened- experienced-observed - the entire living world equally (-equanimity) and is not affected by pains and pleasure, he assimilates in the Brahm.

8.Equanimity in praise (-prayers)-abuse (-blasphemy), iron-gold, comforts-sorrow, cold-heat, gain-loss, like-dislike, life-death, success-failure, raises the man to the status of Brahm.
The one who has renounced/deserted the world should control his senses and sensualities through brain power, control of emotions and passions. The intelligence, prudence and brain power can visualize the soul. The man should stabilize his emotions, with the help of learning-knowledge-education-enlightenment and free self from greed-covets, desires and eagerness.
Firm pious-virtuous-righteous determination, helps one in attainment of the Almighty.

Freedom from attachments, lust, allurements, desires and passions makes the person imperishable, un-decaying leading to Salvation, extreme-eternal joy-happiness, peace and satisfaction.

There is no eye comparable to education and knowledge (-enlightenment), no asceticism comparable to truth and no sorrow-grief comparable to passion-allurement. No comfort is comparable to detachment. One should perform pious-virtuous- sacred-auspicious deeds and desist from sins. He should always follow behavior-manners-methods-life style, of virtuous-holy-sacred people and lead a life of high moral values-virtues. Excellence of values and merit of virtues are the carriers for the enlightened to Salvation.

The human body, which does not generate any comfort to the possessor, gets involved in worldly, sensual enjoyments, pleasures and sensuality pertaining to lust-attraction-attachments and drags him into engross, infatuation, delusion, allurement, ignorance.

Sensuality-sensual pleasures are the root cause of pains-sorrow-worries. They enhance the pains-sorrow-worries many fold. The mind-brain-intelligence of the engrossed-infatuated becomes fickle, flirtatious, inconsistent and unsteady with delusion-allurement-ignorance. The one caught in the web of delusion becomes the object of pains-worries-sorrow, in the present and the forth coming rebirths. One who, wishes his own welfare, should control sexual desires and anger. Both of them are potential enough to destroy the good fortune and credits of the possessor. One should win over his anger-fury through asceticism, discipline, self-control and protect self from envy-prejudice, insult-respect and intoxication-frenzy through education-learning.

One should eliminate cruelty-brutality, from his nature as a sacred-religious-pious endeavor-task. Pardoning produces great strength in him. Identifying self, is the most meritorious-virtuous awakening.

Truth is the greatest means for the self-benefit. Conversation-advice to the listener is even more valuable-meritorious than truth. The deed-action-work, which is in favor of living organisms constitute the truth-reality.

One who has rejected his desire for new projects/endeavors, has no desires, does not collect-store-compile worldly possessions, has sacrificed everything, is enlightened-a scholar-philosopher-a pundit.

One who experiences the senses-sensuality, without attachment- whose senses are under control, in his inner self (-body, mind and heart), is always at ease-peace. 

One who, is free from defects and has the concentration of mind in God, is detached.

One who is isolated from the body, senses and organs is detached, does not recognize himself with them (-devoid of oneness with them).One who cuts all bonds/attachments, attains the ultimate welfare quickly and easily.

One who does not see-entangle with any organism, does not talk, touch or communicate with any one, qualify for great merit-virtues-credit.

One who does not involve in violence, behaves as a friend with all creatures, has no anonymity with anyone in the present birth, has realized self and exercise self-restraint ,does not accumulate anything, has self-satisfaction-rejected all desires-inconsistency-volatility-agility-unsteadiness, leads to the accomplishment-attainment of the Ultimate.

Those who have rejected the gratification, pleasure, enjoyment, sex and suffering are never affected- involved by the grief.

One who wish to win the God, is not defeated by any one must be ascetic, self-controlled, balanced headed, thoughtful and disinterested in all sensuality.

The Brahmn (-Scholar, Learned, Philosopher, Pundit, Enlightened), who absolve himself of the multiple-threefold (-trigunatmak), sensuality always reside in solitude, attains assimilation in God quickly.

One who isolates himself, in spite of the company of people, who like/obtain pleasure in sex, identifies pleasure in isolation/solitude/away from the company of women, should be considered as the one, who is satisfied with the pleasure of enlightenment, is never affected and involved by grief.

The living being is always under the control of his deeds. Auspicious (-Satvik) deeds make Demy-God.

Auspicious and inauspicious (-Rajsik) deeds results in birth as human beings.

Inauspicious deeds (-Tamsik) results in birth in animal-bird-insect-low species.

Accumulation of goods, property, comforts are not essential in this world. They only grow, develop and strengthen bonds and attachment and great vices, defects, sins, guilt.

Family, son, wife, body, collection of goods - everything is perishable, none belongs to the soul. Nothing is forever or regular. Only thing that matters here is one’s own auspicious-virtuous deeds and sins.

The supreme target-goal is attainable through enlightenment, auspicious deeds, purity and detailed-wide-comprehensive knowledge, only which helps in accomplishment of the feat. Attainment of God means freedom of the human soul. An auspicious person cuts the bonds of sensualities-passions-attachments-infatuation and proceeds towards the Ultimate, on the divine path. The sinner fails to cut these bonds.

Beauty, desires, touch, smell, extracts-juices-elixir, are all binding and obstruct in eliminating bonds.

Pardon, religion and rejection of sensuality help in breaking of bonds/attachments. Thought of know all, conquer/conquests of everything, accomplishment, have-have not’s, have to be eliminated.

The enlightened does not allow the development of new bonds/attachments with the help of self-control and asceticism and evolve-develop, the always comfortable, unlimited accomplishment i.e., Salvation.

Listening, reading and understanding, followed by utilization of the preaching in the scriptures, evolve excellence/purity in intelligence. It produces mental comfort, peace, joy, pleasure and eternal progress.

Grief and fear are always ready to control and affect the foolish. They have no control over the learned-scholars. Only morons/duffers/idiots are pained by the joining/meeting of dislikes and loss of loved articles.

Anything, which has perished should not be remembered, regarded or praised, since it hinders in breaking of bonds. Anywhere- the increase of attraction, enhancement of inclination, should be treated as defective and cause of unforeseen trouble. Just by doing this renouncement-detachment takes place.
One who grieved over the events in the past is devoid of Dharm (-religion), Arth (-wealth), Yash (-honor, name, fame, recognition, goodwill). He just carries over the pain of the non-availability of past. It does not fill the vacuum or return the deceased, abolished. All creatures eventually meet; depart from the excellent people, incidences. He is not the only person, who has experienced-undergone the event of grief/sorrow/pain/condolences.

The person, who does not come out of trauma of grief, faces one after another painful events, simultaneously. If one encounters a physical or mental trouble and no recourse-treatment works, it should not be taken to heart. It should not be worried. The best medicine to conquer pain is not to worry about. Stop thinking about it, repeatedly. It only enhances the pain, instead of receding it. Mental grief should be overcome by controlling self, thinking and meditation and the physical pain by medicine. It’s possible only by the knowledge of Shashtr (-scriptures). One should not weep in difficult times, like children.

Beauty, youth, life, accumulated wealth, possessions, good health, company of the dear ones are momentary. They are not forever. One day or the other, they will vanish. The learned one does not feel inclination towards them. It’s not proper to grieve over the dire trouble-danger-mistake or misfortune. In case no way out, let it be seen-observed, quietly. One should persist/continue to find a way out, instead of grieving over it.

There is no doubt that the life is associated with more of pains, than pleasures. Yet the pain caused by old age and death, are above all. It's therefore advised to ameliorate the loving soul from it.

The perishable person pained and worried by thirst-desires-longings- compulsions; still with the desire for long life-longevity, is deteriorating each and every moment.

One who stops worrying about pains and pleasures, attains the state of imperishable Brahm and Ultimate pleasure (-Permanand).

Enlightened, is always satisfied-content with whatever, he has. He does not find thirst-longing for wealth-money. Desires-longings-thirsts have no limit-end. 
Those people who experience the presence of the Almighty, in all organism-living beings-creatures and always meditate about him, assimilate in him-The Almighty, after the completion of the journey of the present life. The Almighty is in front of them and they come over all grief. The person who considers comfort as pain and pain as comfort, intelligence, good policies and all endeavors fail to protect him. It’s therefore essential to seek enlightenment, since the enlightened-Pundit- scholar-learned, never lands in pain –sorrow-grief.
 YAM GEETA यम-गीता 
 All the seven continents, seven Lok (-celestial bodies/havens over the earth) and the seven Patals (-celestial bodies/hell below the earth) are the constituents of our Universe, inhabited by macro (-huge and bulky), small, very small, extremely small, microscopic, unicellular organisms, microbes like: Giants, human beings, animals, trees, plants etc.). Spaces equivalent to 1/8th of the finger are not without the creatures united/tied with the Karm.
The living beings come under the control/command of Yum Raj (- the God/ master of death, who decides the abode of the soul after the death or its next birth/rebirth, on the basis of its Karm Fal; the son of Bhagwan Surya Narayan).The sinner, finds his next habitat in one of the 21 Hell or one of their sub divisions, depending upon the gravity of the sin, to receive punishments, tortures, agony till its sins are not neutralized.
Thereafter, the soul moves from one incarnation to another, from one abode to another, till the sum total of its Karm Fal is not zero, as per the regulations of Vidhata Brahma- the creator, whose dictates are respected, by Bhagwan Sada Shiv and Bhagwan Vishnu, as well. Brahma has assigned the task of consideration/judgment of the deeds- auspicious, inauspicious, sins, and method of its purification/sensitization to Yum Raj.
However the dictates of Yum Raj can be overruled by Mrtunjay Bhagwan Sada Shiv  the master of masters or Bhagwan Vishnu, as his domain is restricted to the sinner only and not the devotees of the God, even if they have committed some sins.
The way undifferentiated gold is molded/cast into crown, jewelry, rings, crest, and coins, thrown etc., the almighty appear in different incarnations as Deity, Giants, humans, animals, plants, microbes etc. On being molten, purified and cast gold obtains its original purity, shine and luster.
 After passing through 84,00,000 incarnations the Jeevatma obtains the body of human beings, which is routed through, one after another incarnations by its auspicious/inauspicious deeds until renunciation, when it finally merges with the almighty.The manner in which the finest dust particles  become earth on falling/settling over it, the deities, humans too merge/emaciate with the Sanatan Param Pita Per Brahm Permashwar- the ultimate God.
The spiritualist, theologist, one who devotes his life to the service of mankind, serves the poor or the down trodden/prays to God for Salvation, becomes free from the bonds/ties/clutches of puny (-auspicious deeds) or pap (-sins), detaches himself from the curse/ harmful/painful effects and impacts of Karm Fal, in the same manner as the fire produced by the sacrifices of ghee (-clarified butter) in hawan kund (-pot used for sacrifices). A Bhakt (- devotee), who meditate can be recognized easily by these characteristics:
One who does not deviate from his Verna Dharm (-duties assigned in Ved or Vedant: Brahman, Shatriy, Vaishy, Shudr).
Anyone, who has the same feelings (-sam bhav-equanimity: considers each and every living species as the incarnation of the almighty ), for the dear ones/ own and the opponents/ enemies/others not related to him anyway.
A person who does not grab/snatch the wealth/belongings of others.
One who does not kill or destroy life forms and follows the path of nonviolence.
A person who has not been corrupted/polluted by the Kal Yug and is free from the impact/ill effects of Kal Yug.
The devotee, in whose heart, lives the Janardan (-the God) and who meditate with deep concentration/ channelizes all his efforts and energies into the god.
Who considers gold or jewels, lying unprotected in the open, as straw/dust particles.
He is free from the defects, arising out of desires, ties, attachments, passions, anonymity in the heart and is extremely pure like quartz crystal - Emerald.
Who showers love and affection to the living world like the moon light, which is free from heat and has soothing effect.
 Who is free from ego, envy, detached with the means and luxuries possessed by him, pure at heart, humble, quiet, tolerant, well wisher of all the living beings and is loved by them too.
 The devotee is extremely mild and placid, Vasudev-The Almighty always resides in whose heart; exactly the way, a newly blossomed Sal tree shows the presence of nectar in it.
The devotee has attained freedom from ego, envy, pride, purification from sins, through self restraint and discipline.
One who has become pure because of the presence of conch, beggar, sword of Bhagwan Shri Hari-The God in his heart.
The devotee who has lost the darkness of his heart by the glow, brightness of Par Matma-The God, as the Sun.
Anyone who does not capture, seize, steal, the wealth or belongings of others; does not kill or destroy creatures, does not speak the untrue, use bitter words or harsh language, does auspicious works and Bhagwan Anant-The Almighty, lives in whose heart.
He does not feel envious due to grandeur or the might of others. Keeps away from blasphemy, helps or benefits the saintly people, shows kindness and favors to sages.
Possesses all amenities and prays to Bhagwan Vishnu- The God , donated liberally to the devotees of Bhagwan Janardan-The God, who lives in his heart.
The person with good sense, understanding, clean mind, has no lust for money, does not expect or seek money or favors from relatives, wife ,son, daughter, father or the servants.
Person with pure/clean thoughts/ideas, busy in pious activities, enjoys the company of virtuous people and follows their conduct, keeps away from the inferior/low people, becomes free from the clutches of Karm, one who is free from the animal/brutal behavior and is a devote of the God.
An intellectual who has attained stability, to the emergence of feelings/thoughts/ideas of oneness and towards, the web of life and death, Yum Raj-Dharm Raj and Vasudev.
 Who have isolated themselves from sins and recite : Hey Kamal Narayan, Hey Vasudev, Hey Vishnu, Hey Dharni Dhar, Hey Achyut, Hey Chakra Pani (Recitation of Vishnu Sahastr Nam, thousand titles of God, signify his qualities). Kindly give us shelter, please protect us, please give us refuse.
Those virtues people, in whose hearts lives the never ending-the limit less-the infinite Bhagwan, are suitable for Vaikunth Lok or a higher abode.
None other than Bhagwan Vishnu protects the creatures-living beings or the life forms.
Those devotees, whose hearts always palpitate/beep with the recitation of Vishnu, entitles themselves for protection from Yum, Yum Doot (-agent), Yum Pash (-the cord that ties the soul),Yum Dand (-the baton of divine justice and punishment) or Yum Yatna (-यातना-torture ,painful punishments) and are spared.
Yam Geeta  यम गीता 
यम गीता यम राज (धर्म राज) द्वारा नचिकेता से कही गई थी। यह पढने वालों व् सुनने वालों को भोग प्रदान करती है। मोक्ष की इच्छा रखने वाले सत्पुरुषों को यह मोक्ष प्रदान करती है। 
यम राज कहते हैं कि : यह आश्चर्य की बात है कि मनुष्य अत्यंत मोह के कारण, स्वयं अस्थिर चित्त होकर भी आसन, शय्या, वाहन, परिधान तथा गृह आदि भोगों को सुस्थिर मानकर उन्हें प्राप्त करना चाहता है।
कपिल जी ने कहा है कि : भोगों में आसक्ति का अभाव तथा सदा ही आत्मचिंतन, मनुष्यों के लिए परम कल्याण उपाय है।
आचार्य पञ्च शिख का कहना है कि : सर्वत्र समता पूर्ण द्रष्टि तथा ममता और आसक्ति न होना  मनुष्यों के लिए परम कल्याण के साधन हैं।
गंगा-विष्णु का कथन है कि : गर्भ से लेकर जन्म और बाल्य आदि वय व अवस्थाओं के स्वरुप को ठीक ठीक समझना ही, मनुष्यों के लिए परम कल्याण का हेतु है। 
महाराज जनक का कथन है कि: अध्यात्मिक, आधि दैविक और आधि भौतिक दुःख आदि-अंत वाले हैं। ये उत्पन्न होकर नष्ट भी हो जाते हैं, इन्हें क्षणिक समझ कर धैर्य पूर्वक सहन करना चाहिये, विचलित नहीं होना चाहिये। इस प्रकार दुखो का प्रतिकार ही मनुष्यों के लिए परम कल्याण का साधन है।  
ब्रह्मा जी का सिद्धान्त  है कि :जीवात्मा और परमात्मा वस्तुत: अभिन्न (एक) हैं। इनमें जो भेद प्रतीत होता है, उसका निवारण ही परम कल्याण का हेतु है।
जैगीषव्य  का कहना है कि : ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद और सामवेद में जो कर्म प्रतिपादित हैं, उन्हें कर्तव्य समझ कर अनासक्त भाव से  करना श्रेय का साधन है । 
देवल का कहना है कि : सब प्रकार की विदित्सा (कर्मारंभ की आकांक्षा ) का परित्याग आत्मा के सुख का साधन है । 

सनकादी ऋषियों का कथन है कि : कामनाओं के त्याग से विज्ञान, सुख, ब्रह्म एवं परम पद की प्राप्ति होती है। कामना रखने वालों को ज्ञान नहीं होता। 
अन्य लोगों के अनुसार प्रवृत्ति व निवृत्ति  दोनों प्रकार के कर्म करने  चाहिये। परन्तु वास्तव में नैष्कमर्य ही ब्रह्म है । वही भगवान विष्णु का स्वरुप व श्रेय का भी श्रेय है । ज्ञान प्राप्ति से  पुरुष सन्तों में श्रेष्ठ हो जाता है। उसका परब्रह्म भगवान विष्णु से कभी भेद नहीं होता। ज्ञान,विज्ञान, आस्तिकता, सौभाग्य तथा उत्तम रूप तपस्या से उपलब्ध होते हैं । इतना ही नहीं मनुष्य अपने मन से जो कुछ भी पाना चाहता है वह  सब तपस्या से प्राप्त हो जाता है। 
विष्णु के समान कोई ध्येय नहीं है,
निराहार के समान कोई तपस्या नहीं है,
आरोग्य के समान कोई बहुमूल्य वास्तु नहीं है,
गंगा जी के समान कोई दूसरी नदी नहीं है, 
जगद्गुरु भगवान विष्णु को छोड़कर, दूसरा कोई बांधव नहीं है।
ऊपर-नीचे, आगे-पीछे, देह, मन, इन्द्रिय, मुख आदि-सब में और सर्वत्र भगवन श्री हरी विद्यमान हैं-इस प्रकार का चिंतन करते हुए जो प्राण त्यागता है, वह साक्षात् श्री हरी के स्वरूप में मिल जाता है। 
वह जो सर्वत्र व्यापक ब्रह्म है, जिससे सबकी उत्पत्ति हुई है तथा यह सब कुछ जिसका संस्थान (आकार-विशेष) है, जो इन्द्रियों से ग्राह्य नहीं है, जिसका नाम आदि के द्वारा निर्देश नहीं किया जा सकता, जो सुप्रितिष्ठ एवं सबसे परे है, उस परापर रूप में साक्षात् भगवान विष्णु ही सबके ह्रदय में विराजमान हैं।  वे यज्ञ  के स्वामी हैं यज्ञ स्वरूप-पुरुष  हैं ; उन्हें कोई तो परब्रह्म रूप से, कोई विष्णु रूप से, कोई शिव रूप से, कोई ब्रह्मा रूप से और ईश्वर रूप से, कोई इन्द्रादि नामों से तथा कोई सूर्य, चन्र्द्रमा और कालरूप से पाना चाहता है। ब्रहमा से लेकर कीट तक सारी श्रष्टि को विष्णु का स्वरूप ही मानते हैं। भगवान विष्णु स्वयं परब्रह्म परमश्वर हैं, जहाँ पहुँच कर-जान  लेने पर-पा लेने पर फिर वापस इस संसार में नहीं आना पड़ता। 
स्वर्ण दान-जैसे बड़े बड़े दान, पुन्य स्थल-तीर्थों में स्नान करने पर, ध्यान लगाने पर, व्रत करने पर, पूजा करने पर, धर्म की बातें करने सुनने पर एवं उनका पालन करने पर, अन्यय  भाव से भक्ति करने पर उनकी प्राप्ति होती है। 
आत्मा को रथी, शरीर को रथ, बुद्धि को सारथि, मन को लगाम, इंद्रियों को घोड़े, विषयों को मार्ग की उपमा-के समान, मानना चाहिये। शरीर, इन्द्रिय और मन सहित आत्मा को भोक्ता समझना चाहिये। बुद्धि रुपी सारथि अविवेकी होता है। जो मन रूपी लगाम को कस कर नहीं पकड़ता, वह परमात्मा को प्राप्त नहीं कर सकता अपितु संसार रूपी गर्त में गिरता है। जो व्यक्ति विवेकी होता है, मन को काबू में रखता है वही परम पद को प्राप्त करता है और फिर जन्म नहीं लेता। जो मनुष्य विवेक युक्त बुद्धि रूप सारथि से संपन्न और मन रूपी लगाम को काबू में रखता है वही संसार रूपी मार्ग को प्राप्त कर भगवान विष्णु के परम पद को प्राप्त करता है। 
इन्द्रियों की अपेक्षा उनके विषय प्रमुख हैं, विषयों से प्रमुख मन है, मन से प्रमुख बुद्धि है, बुद्धि से प्रमुख आत्मा(-महतत्व) है, आत्मा से ऊपर अव्यक्त-मूल प्रक्रति है और मूल प्रक्रति से ऊपर परमात्मा है। परमात्मा से ऊपर कुछ भी नहीं है, वही सीमा है, वही परम गति है। सम्पूर्ण भूतों में छिपा हुआ यह परमात्मा, प्रकाश में नहीं आता, दिखाई नहीं देता-परन्तु अनुभव अवश्य होता है; ध्यान करने शुद्धबुद्धि आत्माओं को दर्शन भी देता है। सूक्ष्मदर्शी पुरुष अपनी तीव्र बुद्धि से ही उसे देख पाते हैं। विद्वान पुरुष वाणी को मन में, मन को विज्ञानमयी बुद्धि में, बुद्धि  को महतत्व(आत्मा)  में  और महतत्व को परमात्मा में लीन करे। यही परम गति है।  
यमादि नियमों-साधनों से ब्रह्म व आत्मा की एकता को जानकर मनुष्य सत्स्वरूप ब्रह्म ही हो जाता है। अहिंसा, सत्य, अस्तेय(चोरी न करना), ब्रह्मचर्य और अपरिग्रह(संग्रह न करना)-ये पांच यम है।शौच (आन्तरिक व बाहरी शुद्धि-पवित्रता), संतोष, उत्तम तप, स्वाध्याय और ईश्वर पूजा-पांच नियम हैं। आसन बैठने की प्रक्रिया  है, जिसके पद्मासन जैसे कई भेद हैं। प्राण वायु को जीतना प्राणायाम है। इन्द्रियों का निग्रह प्रत्याहार है। शुभ विषयों में चित्त को स्थिरतापूर्वक स्थापित करना धारणा है।एक ही विषय में बार-बार धारणा ध्यान है ।स्वयं को  ब्रह्म रूप में अनुभव करना समाधि है। जीव मुक्ति के पश्चात् ब्रह्म के साथ एकीकरण को प्राप्त होता है। ज्ञान-बोध से ही जीव स्वयं को ब्रह्म मान सकता है, अन्यथा नहीं। अज्ञान और उसके कार्यों से मुक्ति प्राप्त कर जीव अजर अमर हो जाता है ।   


SALVATION: GEETA (मोक्ष-गीता)
(Srimad Devi Bhagwat Maha Puran)        
 Entire Universe exhibits dual character. Human beings too show dual character. First ones are those who have attachment, belonging  passion, desire and love for this world and are called Ragi. The second type of person is one, who is free from all sorts of desires and is called the Vairagi. The Ragi, who is attached with world, experiences and undergoes all sorts of pleasures and pains. Pleasures symbolize heavens and the pains symbolize hell. Acquisition of wealth, property, riches, prosperity, conveniences, children, wife, honor  reputation, success, victory etc. by the Ragi; gives him happiness, while the non- availability of these and like, fills the desirous person with pain and unhappiness.              

Efforts are made by the Ragi to acquire goods, commodities and valuables, which give him comforts. Anyone, who obstructs the collection of luxuries,by him is considered to be a foe or an enemy. The person, who adds to the comforts and pleasures of the Ragi, is considered to be a friend. A clever or sagacious person keeps himself free from infatuations, attachments, possessions, allurements or compassion  But the ignorant, imprudent, foolish or the stupid, always experiences great love, affection, attachment and desire for the worldly possessions, which are immaterial.
Unattached person, sages, spirituals, Yogis obtain pleasure and happiness through solitude and followings of Vedant Shastra (preaching of Ved, Puran, Upnishad, Ramayan, Bhagwat, Mahabharat, Geeta etc.). Thoughts, discussions pertaining to worldly or sensual enjoyment, sensuality gives them pain, sadness dejection, depression and melancholy. Any one who wishes to have salvation finds many enemies like lust, anger, pride, greed, allurement, attachment etc. The real friend or the well wisher is self satisfaction, contentment and none other than these.

 A person desirous of salvation should discharge his social, ancestral, cultural, moral, religious duties and responsibilities faithfully, with devotion, dedication and honesty. He should not run away from these, since the family life is considered to be the greatest and easiest means to attain salvationHe should be content with the money earned by honest, just, genuine and proper means. He should not desire /expect anything from anyone else, must be pious- free from sins. He should perform daily routines like chores, rituals, prayers, Agnihotra/Haven-offerings and sacrifices made in the fire, offering/pouring water to the Sun and Tulsi in the morning –facing east, regularly and north while performing evening prayers. He should offer water and food to the guests. He must speak the truth, which is neither bitter nor harmful to an innocent person. He must be pious and pure at heart, through his actions and deeds .One should crave for Sanyas - Sainthood, only after fulfillment of all of his duties, desires, contentment, and satisfaction of all his worldly gratifications, attainment of peace and purity of heart, otherwise not.

First thing to be done by the person seeking Moksh- Salvation, is to be blessed with the Janeu Ceremony, performed with the sacred thread by the parents, elders, holy persons and the family Priest, on some auspicious Muhurt – occasion, to be initiated into Brahmchary- Asceticism (-initiation/beginning of education). He will stay with the Guru-the teacher having abode in forests away from city life, help him in all daily chores, agriculture, animal husbandry and learn to discipline the body, mind and soul, in addition to learning Ved’s, Vedant and various other faculties. He has to undertake eight essential sanctifying, purification rites, like Shum (-absence of passion, peace of mind), Dum (-self control, restraint, mortification, repression of feelings).
Having completed studies, learning, education, the Brahmchari should get married and enter Grahasth Ashram- family way, i.e., into the second stage of life.
Mumukshu – the emancipation seeker, has to move from one stage to another i.e., Vanprasth and Sanyas slowly and gradually. Senses are very powerful. They can’t be controlled or subdued easily. They create all sorts of abnormalities and disorders in the Mun (-mind, brain, thoughts, heart) of the immature. The Sanyasi should be free from all desires such as food, sleep, pleasure, lust or the son. The strings of lust and desires are extremely strong and powerful. Their web can’t be cut easilyThe consolation of desires can be discarded, one by one only.  The Sanyasi, mislead or corrupted once, has no other approach/ path/means to Salvation. He has no place in the society as well.

One who has realized self; is intelligent, quite, neither happy nor repentant, assess gain or loss at par, performs his duties and responsibilities,      as    per    the   dictates of the Shashtr, is free from all
liabilities and mental tensions, is content/satisfied , analyses the self and attains Salvation gradually.
 Videh Raja Janak, a Nirlipt (-not involved) and Jeevan-Mukt (-detached, free from sorrow, rejoice, attachments, pain, anonymity), isolated/detached himself, while performing the responsibilities, duties/functions of state, having all sorts of luxuries and amenities; advised Suk Dev Ji (Son of Bhagwan Ved Vyas)- who was spiritually pure, pious and free from sins, to get married.
The world which itself is visible, can’t hold the invisible soul. The soul is invisible, immaterial and notional. It has certain characteristics like earth, water, fire, air, sky, smell, extracts-juices/elixir, figure, touch, feeling, experience and sound. The Soul-Brahm, which in itself- is a segment of The Almighty, is always pure and free, can never be tied or bonded with the material world.
It’s the Mun, which craves for pleasures, comforts, desires, charms, lust, companions and luxuries. It’s inconsistent with unbound speeds. Mun is solely responsible for the ties/bonds or salvation. Mun is the sole factor behind pain or pleasure. Everything becomes pure with its purification. Seizure or salvation lies in the Mun only. Solace, peace or tranquility is associated with the Mun and brings the individual close to emancipation. Differentiation like anonymity, friendship, neutrality, reside in the mind (-Mun).
The feeling/thought of dual ness of soul with the God arises from the ties and bonds with the perishable world. The main reason behind this is Avidya (-negative/repulsive thoughts, crime, intoxication of brain, cruelty, egotism, destruction, torture, vandalism, lust etc.). Without the essence of Avidya, Vidya can’t be experienced. It’s Vidya, which enlightens the individual and leads him to the analysis of Dharm and emancipation, ultimately. Oneness of the soul with the almighty, eliminates the dual ness-differentiation.
The Karm-deeds, responsibilities, performances, attachments, egotism, impact , ties, or the bonds, without involvement of the self, qualifies for the ultimate Moksh-Salvation, since it is considered to be the Karm not done. Purity of thoughts and actions, detachment from the world, duties performed without involvement, grants emancipation.

Dharm-Vidya, discipline of  the Body, Mind and Soul helps in the attainment of the ultimate i.e., Salvation-assimilation of the soul with the Brahm- The Almighty.
Extract from: Shri Mad Devi Bhagwat Maha Puran (Suk Dev Ji visits Videh Raja Janak on the advice of Bhagwan Ved Vyas-his father). Identical text is present in Narad Puran, with other details as well.   

No comments:

Post a Comment